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Taiwan ROC & Hong Kong. Internal & External Politics. Taiwan ROC Government. President (4-year term after 1996) The Five ``Yuan”: Executive Yuan (Premier, ministers, etc.) Legislative Yuan (3-year term) Judicial Yuan (15 grand justices) Examination Yuan and Control Yuan

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Taiwan ROC & Hong Kong

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Taiwan roc hong kong l.jpg

Taiwan ROC & Hong Kong

Internal & External Politics


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Taiwan ROC Government

  • President (4-year term after 1996)

  • The Five ``Yuan”:

    • Executive Yuan (Premier, ministers, etc.)

    • Legislative Yuan (3-year term)

    • Judicial Yuan (15 grand justices)

    • Examination Yuan and Control Yuan

  • National Assembly (constitutional issues)


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Diplomatic Tug of War

  • 162 countries recognize PRC as the legitimate government of China

    • 8 (’49) 32 (’59) 49 (’69) 113 (’79) 129 (’89)

  • 27 countries recognize ROC as the legitimate government of China


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US Official Policy

  • US government shifted diplomatic recognition from ROC to PRC in 1979

  • US congress passed Taiwan Relations Act in 1979

  • American Institute in Taiwan

  • Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Offices in US


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Economic Ties

  • Trade and investment expanded rapidly despite restrictions by ROC government

  • Workaround: Hong Kong & Macau

  • ``Three links”:

    • mail

    • transportation

    • trade


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President Chen Shui-bian

  • pledged in 2000 that, unless the CCP used military force against Taiwan, he would:

    • not declare Taiwan independent

    • not change the name of Republic of China

    • not hold referendum on independence

  • 2002: “separate countries”

    “referendum”


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President Jiang Zemin:

  • ``One-China principle is the basis for cross-straits relations

  • ``Both the mainland and Taiwan belong to one China

  • ``On the premise of the one-China principle, all issues can be discussed”

  • Stress on cultural & economic exchanges


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PRC-UK Negotiations

  • Deng Xiaoping: “1 country, 2 systems”

  • PRC Constitution of 1982: S.A.R.

  • PRC & UK Joint Declaration in 1984


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Handover to PRC

  • 7th National People’s Congress adopted Basic Law of HKSAR in Beijing in 1990

  • Became Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of PRC in July 1, 1997


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Basic Law of H K SAR

  • Stipulated in PRC-UK Joint Declaration in 1984

  • Drafted by a committee with members from both Hong Kong and mainland

  • Adopted by 7th NPC in Beijing in 1990

  • Came into effect on July 1, 1997

  • Constitutional document for HKSAR


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3 Principles in Basic Law

  • ``One Country, Two Systems”

    • Capitalist system and way of life shall remain unchanged for 50 years (B.L. A5)

  • ``High Degree of Autonomy”

  • ``Hong Kong People Running Hong Kong”


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1 Country, 2 Systems

  • Legal system (British common law) shall be maintained, except for any law that contravene the Basic Law and subject to amendment by the legislature (B.L. A8)


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High Degree of Autonomy

  • HKSAR enjoys executive, legislative, and independent judicial power, including that of final adjudication (B.L. A2)


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``HK People Running HK”

  • executive authorities and legislature shall be composed of permanent residents of Hong Kong (B.L. A3)

  • public servants must be permanent residents of Hong Kong (some exceptions)


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Central Government

  • responsible for defense and foreign affairs relating to HKSAR (B.L. A13-14)

  • authorizes HKSAR to conduct relevant external affairs on its own (B.L. A13)

  • HKSAR shall be responsible for the maintenance of public order

  • 11 PRC laws apply to HK (B.L. A18)


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Rights and Freedoms

  • freedom of speech, of the press, of publication, of association, of assembly, of procession, of demonstration, of communication, of movement, of conscience, of religious belief, of marriage..

  • the right and freedom to form and join trade unions, and to strike


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Three Branches

  • Chief Executive

    • Tung Chee Hwa

  • Legislative Council

  • Court of Final Appeal


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S/election of C.E. & Legco

  • Shall be specified in the light of the actual situation in the HKSAR and in accordance with the principle of gradual and orderly progress (B.L. A45 & A68)

  • The ultimate aim is the election of the Chief Executive and all the members of the Legislative Council by universal suffrage (B.L. A45 & A68)


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S/election of Legco


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Chief Executive S/election

  • 800-member Election Committee

    • industrial, commercial, and financial sectors 1/4

    • the professions 1/4

    • labor, social services, religious, & other 1/4

    • Legco, HK deputies to NPC, etc. 1/4

  • Tung Chee Hwa (1997 - 2007)

    • no more than two consecutive terms


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Since 1997

  • Freedoms and rights substantially intact

    • dissident groups

    • Falun Gong

  • Judicial system remains the same

  • Weak executive and strong civil service

  • Lack of political skills

  • Multiple political parties


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H.K.’s Competitiveness

  • Geographic location

    • one of the best deep-water ports in the world

  • hardworking and well-educated workforce

    • literacy rate 94%


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``World’s Freest Economy”

  • exports & imports each ~US$200b > GDP

  • GDP per capita: US$23,027

  • no VAT, sales tax, or capital gains tax

  • only 3 types of income are taxed:

    • profits, salaries, and property

  • 31% live in public housing


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Influence on Mainland

  • US$220 billion direct investment each way

  • Hong Kong bodies of law and expertise

  • Hong Kong attracts talents from mainland

  • Hong Kong radios, TV, newspapers, magazines, and Internet on mainland


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