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Student Profiling and Beyond The Classroom Activities. E-learning and Laptop Forum Zayed University, Abu Dhabi April 2, 2005. Peter Hatherley-Greene Dubai Men’s College. VARK Learning Preferences. http://www.vark-learn.com/. VARK – inventory ( online and PDF).

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Student profiling and beyond the classroom activities l.jpg

Student Profiling andBeyond The ClassroomActivities

E-learning and Laptop Forum Zayed University, Abu Dhabi April 2, 2005

Peter Hatherley-Greene

Dubai Men’s College


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VARK Learning Preferences

http://www.vark-learn.com/


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VARK – inventory (online and PDF)


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VARK Learning Preferences

  • This is not a learning style eg. Kolb’s Model

  • VARK deals with just one dimension of the complex amalgam of preferences that make up a learning style –

    • the ways in which people like information to come to them

    • the ways in which they like to deliver their information

  • Inventory consists of 13 questions supported by Arabic text

  • Four main modal preferences and one multimodal preference


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VARK - visual

This preference includes the depiction of information in charts, graphs, flow charts, and all the symbolic arrows, circles, hierarchies and other devices that instructors use to represent what could have been presented in words.


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VARK - aural

This perceptual mode describes a preference for information that is "heard." Students with this modality report that they learn best from lectures, tutorials, tapes, group discussion, speaking, web chat, talking things through.


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VARK – read/write

This preference is for information displayed as words. Not surprisingly, many academics have a strong preference for this modality. This preference emphasizes text-based input and output - reading and writing in all its forms.


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VARK - kinesthetic

By definition, this modality refers to the perceptual preference related to the use of experience and practice (simulated or real). The key is that the student is connected to reality, either through experience, example, practice or simulation.


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VARK - multimodal

Multimodal students need to process information in more than one mode in order to get effective understanding. They can be more flexible about how they take in and give out information than those with a profile that emphasizes a single preference. They tend to be able to match their preferences with whatever mode(s) are being used.


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VARK – results (Diploma Year 1)

n=276


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VARK – results (HD Foundations)

n=162


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VARK – results (combined)

n=438


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VARK – results(comparison to VARK database)

(n=438)


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VARK – multimodal breakdown


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VARK – multimodal breakdown


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VARK – breakdown comparisons


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VARK – supporting evidence

Reid investigated multiple learning styles preferences in nine ESL language groups. Arabic learning styles support multimodalism.

Reid, J. (1987). The learning style preferences of ESL students. TESOL Quarterly, 21/1, 87-111.


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VARK – summary of results

  • Strong multimodalism (63%) indicates adult learning styles

  • Old myth of Arab learning preferences (aural and visual learners) appears to be debunked

  • No observable difference between Diploma and Foundations

  • Bimodal differences between DMC and VARK results

  • R/W learning preference strongly indicates they do have the potential ability to function in an academic arena

  • Other studies support findings of multimodalism


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VARK – Study Strategies

Faculty address study strategies through one-on-one counselling with students. The study strategy for each modal preference is outlined and reinforced at various times during the semester, especially leading up to assessments.  


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VARK – CEPA scores comparison

  • increasing percentage of multimodals with increasing CEPA score

  • support for Fleming's notion that multimodalism is a characteristic of scholastic adult learners

  • more single mode learners in CD Year 1 compared to Foundations


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Other measures – Gardiner’sMultiple Intelligences

  • Naturalistic – aptitude for being with and respecting nature

  • Musical – aptitude for musical expression

  • Logical/mathematical – aptitude for math, logic, deduction

  • Existential – aptitude for understanding one’s purpose

  • Interpersonal – aptitude for working with others

  • Bodily/kinesthetic – aptitude for being physical

  • Linguistic/verbal – aptitude for the written/spoken word

  • Intrapersonal – aptitude for working alone

  • Spatial/visual – aptitude for picturing, seeing

  • Emotional – aptitude for identifying emotion (not assessed)


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Gardiner’s MultipleIntelligences

n=213


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Gardiner’s Multiple Intelligences

n=213


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Gardiner’s Multiple Intelligences - implications

  • Know your students

  • See your students in different contexts

  • Vary your teaching approach

  • Vary your assessment approach

  • Keep an eye on what’s going on outside


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Student Profiling 2002-2004


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Student Profiling contd.


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Student profiling – summary

VARK, Multiple Intelligences and LPQ help us to define how our students learn and what strengths they bring to the learning process


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Beyond the Classroom

Rationale

Converging

Technologies

  • HCT Graduate Outcomes

  • converging technologies

  • constructivism

  • e-learning experimentation

  • student profile

  • success reports from other campuses


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Beyond the Classroom

“I want my students to develop effective teams”

Conceptual Framework - example

GO 6.3 “Contribute to group decision-making”

GO 4.4 “Determine the scope of the potential impact of IT in their personal and professional lives”

ENGL 1116 Goal 1.3 “Respond appropriately to simple oral instructions and directions”

MATH 1100 Goal 6.1 “Read times from the 12- and 24-hour clock”

COMP 1100 Goal 5.1 “Input text into a word processing application”

CARE 1100 Goal 3.1 “Identify the elements of effective communication…”

The Knowledge Hunt asks students to work in small teams to locate three different locations around Dubai and report back via three different communication devices to receive the next clues. The performance will be determined by the successful completion of the task within the time frame, the criteria will be effective use of English for communication and the condition is the use of technology tools such as email and mobile phones.


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Beyond the Classroom

Knowledge Hunt

SMS

Operationalizing the Framework – scenario #1

work in teams of 3 students

start Knowledge Hunt from College

students receive initial instructions via email in computer labs

Location #1 – following instructions, students ring faculty and describe their location. If correct, next clue is given orally

Location #2 – following instructions in #1, students send faculty a text message and describe their location. If correct, next clue is given via text message

Location #3 – following instructions in #2, students access WebCT or Weblog via Internet Cafe at next location and write about their location. Once confirmed, students return to College.


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Beyond the Classroom

Workstation

1

2

6

5

3

4

Operationalizing the Framework – scenario #2

work in teams of 3 students

starting points at six different workstations

teams move sequentially from station to station to complete each task


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Beyond the Classroom

Workstation

1

2

6

5

3

4

Operationalizing the Framework – scenario #2

work in teams of 3 students

starting points at six different workstations

teams move sequentially from station to station to complete each task

successful task completion is achieved when all stations have been visited


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Beyond the Classroom

Workstation

1

2

6

5

3

4

Operationalizing the Framework – scenario #2

work in teams of 3 students

starting points at six different workstations

teams move sequentially from station to station to complete each task

successful task completion is achieved when all stations have been visited

workstations may be physical or virtual locations


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Beyond the Classroom

Smart Task

5

6

2

1

3

4

Operationalizing the Framework – scenario #3

1

main task is divided into sub-tasks

each team or individual receives only their/his part

each team or individual must NOT know about the other tasks

this can be achieved through careful mixed of physical and virtual locations

meet at agreed time at physical or virtual location (WebCT) to share results of tasks to complete main task

2

6

5

3

4


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Beyond the Classroom

Web-based Tasking

Operationalizing the Framework – scenario #4

use Webquests to distribute tasks and resources, assign responsibilities and set goals

use WebCT to conduct an online lesson while students remain at home or in LRC

explore the use of asynchronous discussion boards to archive learning

use graphic organizers and concept mapping in your introduction to assist with task comprehension

use targeted emails

blended learning that combines traditional and e-learning methodologies

BTC webpage available from WebCT


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Beyond the Classroom


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Beyond the Classroom

BTC Shopping Task

Method

  • visit four main shopping malls in Dubai

  • compare the prices of each item from all four malls

  • return to the mall that has the cheapest item and buy it

  • directions to each mall were given from both faculty either through email, text messaging or mobile phone

  • follow-up and pre-tasks included

    • shopping dialogue and vocabulary work in English

    • preparation of a price comparison table in Word and use of comparative sentences (< > =) in Math

    • completion of a task feedback form that allowed students to reflect on the task both in terms of their individual contributions and the team’s overall performance


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Beyond the Classroom

BTC Shopping Task contd…

Text messaging


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Beyond the Classroom

BTC Shopping Task contd…

Email


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Beyond the Classroom

BTC Shopping Task contd…

Video


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Beyond the Classroom

BTC Shopping Task contd…

Reports – section 1


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Beyond the Classroom

BTC Shopping Task contd…

Reports – section 4


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Beyond the Classroom

BTC Shopping Task contd…

Reports – section 5


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Beyond the Classroom

Verification

What did we do to verify task participation?

  • phone call from teams at location

  • business cards from interviews or visits

  • mobile or digital photographs of specific locations

  • task completion

    From our experiences, you will be active during the task – acting as a kind of home base, responding to all communications from teams


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Summary

  • Students are not homogeneous in any culture

  • To know them truly, we must view them in differentcontexts

  • We have reflected upon the results

  • We now need to

    • establish theory, not evaluation

    • principles, not practices

    • pedagogies, not applications

  • Gut-feelings are positive

  • Issues remain – insurance (Waiver of Liability), learning focus, “tail wagging the dog” effect


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References

  • Fleming, N.D. (1995), I'm different; not dumb. Modes of presentation (VARK) in the tertiary classroom, in Zelmer, A., (Ed.) Research and Development in Higher Education, Proceedings of the 1995 Annual Conference of the Higher Education and Research Development Society of Australasia (HERDSA), HERDSA, Volume 18, pp. 308 - 313

  • Gardner, H., & Hatch, T. (1989). Multiple intelligences go to school: Educational implications of the theory of multiple intelligences. Educational Researcher, 18(8), 4-9.

  • Reid, J. (1987). The learning style preferences of ESL students. TESOL Quarterly, 21/1, 87-111.

  • St Hill, R. (1997), Modal Preferences In Teaching And Learning Economics, Contributed paper, Fifth Annual Teaching Economics Conference, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, 2-4 July, 1997.

Peter Hatherley-Greene

Dubai Men’s College

Office phone: 04 3048 321

[email protected]


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