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Proposal For Water Accounts- Tanzania. by Grace Z. Nsanya Principal Hydrogeologist, Ministry of Water and Livestock Development ,Tanzania. Background. Water is the most important resource that we have for all socio-economic sectors and all economic development activities.

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Proposal For Water Accounts- Tanzania

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Proposal for water accounts tanzania l.jpg

Proposal For Water Accounts- Tanzania

  • by Grace Z. Nsanya

  • Principal Hydrogeologist,

  • Ministry of Water and Livestock Development ,Tanzania

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  • Water is the most important resource that we have for all socio-economic sectors and all economic development activities.

  •     human health,

  •      agriculture,

  •      industries,

  •      forestry,

  •     coastal resources,

  •    wildlife and livestock. All depend on water resources for their sustenance

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  • Tanzania government recognizes that water is an important component in the development of the country. This is proclaimed in the various policies including:

  • Vision 2025, the Poverty Reduction Strategy,

  • Agricultural Policy,

  • Environmental Policy,

  • Forestry Policy,

  • Energy Policy, etc

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Importance of Water To National Economy

  • The Tanzania poverty reduction strategy paper recognises the heavy dependence of the people on the environment (soil, water and forest)

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Importance of Water To The Livelihood of People

  • About 80%of the population is rural based and dependent upon subsistence livelihoods – farming, herding (18 % of GDP),

  • fishing(2.7% of GDP) and forestry (2-3% of GDP and 10 % of exports)


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  • The performance of key sectors of the economy which include:

  • agriculture (contributing 50% of the GDP),

  • manufacturing (8.4% of GDP),

  • energy, mining (2.3% of GDP),

  • wildlife and tourism (2 % of GDP.

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Management of Water Resources

  • Tanzania is divided into nine River Basins. (as shown in the map:

  • I. Pangani Basin

  • II Wami and Ruvu Basin

  • III Rufiji Basin

  • IV Ruvuma and S. CoastalBasin

  • V Lake Nyasa Basin

  • VI Internal Drainage Basin

  • VII Lake Rukwa Basin

  • VIII Lake Tanganyika Basin

  • IX Lake Victoria Basin

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Map of River Basins

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  • An effective water resources assessment is based on good physical and socio-economic data. Hence availability of data is a basic tool for water resources management.

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  • Water resources data are missing or are inadequate for most of the 9 river basins due to in adequate resources.

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  • Inadequate data has made resources assessment and planning difficult and has resulted in:

  • overuse or under-use of resources

  • under-designing or over-designing of projects.

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  • Tanzania is faced with various water resources management problems and challenges such as;

  • water use conflicts,

  • Population Growth and rise in demand for water

  • Unequal distribution of water resources etc,

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The National Water Policy

  • In July 2002, the Government published a revised National Water Policy (NAWAPO), which sets out the future direction for the water sector in achieving sustainable development and utilisation of the Nation’s water resources and the increase in the availability of water supply and sanitation services.  

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Water Resources Planning

  • The policy emphasizes Integrated water resource planning based on River Basins as planning unit. Also a mechanism for inter-sectoral planning at Basin level has been formulated.

  • Participatory approaches at all levels of planning is promoted in the new water Policy .

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  • Water resource accounts of both surface water and groundwater, quantitatively and qualitatively, is a fundamental element of the water resources planning process. However, these accounts are weak or non-existent for most the basins.

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Importance of Water Accounts

  • Tool for water resources planning ( it shows who is using water, how much water is used, the socio-economic value of water use by each sector).

  •    Tool for water allocations at river basin level even if it is not for economic reasons.

  •      at national level it is useful for evaluation and prioritisation of water infrastructure investments, by showing demands and the socio-economic benefits.

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  •     A strategic planning and decision support tool at both river basin and national level, (projection of future demand , shortages , indication of users who are capable of paying for water services and who can not.

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Research Objectives

  • The objective of water resources accounts is to have appropriate and sustainable data for management and preparation of water use plans.

  • Data to be used for decision making ,giving water its real economic value.            

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Tables for Physical water accounts

  • To Construct water accounts for two river basins Pangani and Wami /Ruvu the following tables shall be used:

    1. rainfall and runoff for Pangani and Wami/Ruvu basins,

    2. Water Balance for Pangani basin

    3. Total water use within the Pangani Basin by major end users.

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  • 4.Total water use within the Pangani basin by the major end users but disaggregated by 4 regions within the basin.

  • 5. Total water use within the Pangani basin by 4 regions and more detailed list of end users disaggregated depending on data availability.

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Approach and Analytical Methods to Be Applied

  • The accounts will be constructed by filling in the following tables [tables 1-5]: as shown bellow.

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Approaches for Data Collection

  • Water use data from upper catchment, middle and lower catchment

  • Collect water availability data and their sourcesdata from water user associations, urban water authorities

  • Data from private water suppliers (Kili water, Uroki Boma Ngombe Uchira water supplier)

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  • Small towns (Same, Korogwe, Lushoto, Kibaha, Bagamoyo,), groundwater users TPC, urban water authorities

  • large industrial users,breweries, soft drinks, water bottling companies, textile factories etc

  • private wells operators,

  • vendors

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Workplan and duration

  • inventory of available data and information, preparation for field work (1-1.5 months

  • Information from basin offices and UWSA’s (o.5months)

  • Field work to small towns water authorities- water use –Domestic :, Same, Korogwe (small town),etc (0.5 month

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  • Visits to district planning offices- Water use plans for various uses, available resources, demand for various sectors( 0.5 months)Visits to other Sectors (Irrigation, Energy and Minerals, Industries, Natural resources water for wildlife, tourism ) (0.5 months)  VI.      Data compilation and analysis ( 9 months) VII . Reports (2.5 months)

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Schedule of activities

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  • 1.      Water accounts data in excel files.

  • 2.      Reports presenting and discussing the accounts.

        progress reports after every three months.

  •   draft report shall be submitted to NRAESA programme before the stakeholder workshop.

  •    final report shall be submitted at the end after incorporating the comments of stakeholders.

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  • Thank you for listening

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