IMPACT OF TSUNAMI ON ANIMALS IN INDIA: TSUNAMI-Disaster Management Programs for Livestock - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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IMPACT OF TSUNAMI ON ANIMALS IN INDIA: TSUNAMI-Disaster Management Programs for Livestock . DR. C. KATHIRVELAN And MAYANK TANDON Animal Nutrition Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana, INDIA. email: c_kathir@yahoo.com, mayanktandon1@gmail.com. INTRODUCTION.

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IMPACT OF TSUNAMI ON ANIMALS IN INDIA: TSUNAMI-Disaster Management Programs for Livestock

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IMPACT OF TSUNAMI ON ANIMALS IN INDIA:

TSUNAMI-Disaster Management

Programs for Livestock

DR. C. KATHIRVELAN And MAYANK TANDON

Animal Nutrition Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana, INDIA.

email:c_kathir@yahoo.com,

mayanktandon1@gmail.com


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INTRODUCTION

  • TSUNAMI – “Harbour wave”

  • Tsunami – are large waves that are generated when the

  • sea floor is deformed by seismic activity

  • Tsunami wave caused by

  • Coastal earthquakes

  • Under sea volcanic eruptions

  • Under sea landslides

  • Tsunami is not a single wave, It is series of waves.

  • Travel at a speed of more than 800Km/hr.

Frontline,Jan,2005


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  • December 26 th ,2004 Tsunami

  • Epicenter - 280 km from northern sumathra

  • 2100 km from Indian south coast line

  • Due to interface of the two tectonic plates

  • (The Indian plate and Burma plate)

  • Magnitude 8.9

  • 30 feet height

Frontline,Jan,2005


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Countries affected

Indonesia

Thailand

Srilankha

India

Myanmar

Malaysia

Bangladesh

Somalia

In India

Andaman and nicobar

TamilNadu

Pondicherry

Kerala

Andhra Pradesh


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World Tsunami occurrence

Nov 1,1755 - Europe

Aug 27, 1883 - Indonesian islands (Java- Sumatra)

June 15,1896 - East coast of Japan

April 1,1946 - Hawaii

Nov 5,1952 - Russia

May 23,1960 - Hawaii

Aug 23, 1976 - Philippines

July 17, 1998 - Bismarck sea

India Today,Jan,2005


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  • In INDIA

  • Dec 31, 1881 - Car Nicobar island

  • June 26,1941 - Andaman and Nicobar

  • From 1973-2001 7 under sea earthquakes happened.But

  • No Tsunami

  • Dec 26,2004- Andaman and nicobar, Indian South coast states

India Today,Jan,2005


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Number of missing or dead animals

Source:FAO


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Impact of Tsunami as a whole- In India

Source: Ministry of Home Affairs


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Andaman and Nicobar

Number of missing or dead animals

Cattle -556

Sheep and goat - 4300

Dogs - 654

Poultry -1.3 lakhs

Pig -368


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In TamilNadu

Number of missing or dead animals

Cattle - 1,021

Sheep and goat- 3234

Pigs- 720

Dogs - 600

Poultry -1.6lakhs

Source:TamilNadu animal Husbandry Dept.


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Impact of tsunami on animal production

ANIMALS

PLANTS (Feed resources)

SOILS


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ON ANIMALS

  • Destruction of animals

  • Considerable destruction of animal building

  • Loss of stored animal feed resources

  • Disease out break;

  • Lack of feed

  • Movement of animals

  • Consumption of contaminated water

  • Stress conditions

  • Potenciate disease outbreak


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Cont..

Especially Zoonatic diseases like;

Salmonellosis

Leptospirosis

Anthrax, rabies

Crypto sporidiosis

Giardiosis

Animal health problem & under nutrition

Stress conditions

Decreased animal production


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ON PLANTS

(FEED RESOURCES)

  • Stored animal feed was soaked with sea water

  • Pastures and other fibrous feed not affected severely when the sea water passed over them and then quickly receded.

  • Long term damage : pastures and fodder crops have been flooded for long periods with stagnant salt water.

  • Coconuts destruction in coastal areas

  • Feed mill (fish meal processing unit) damage also

  • reported


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Cont..

  • Especially in TamilNadu,

  • Crops affected are,

  • Majorly paddy,

  • Groundnut, Sesame, Black gram

  • In, Andaman and Nicobar

  • Paddy and coconut plantation totally wiped out

  • Areca nut, palm plantation affected.


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  • ON SOILS (Agricultural fields)

  • Direct crop destruction by up rooting

  • Soil fertility losses when upper layer is washed away

  • Deposition of salt sediment

  • Soil infiltration

  • Soil erosion modifies the topography

  • Intensity of damage depends upon

  • The energy of the flood

  • The type of soil coverage and vegetation

  • Soil drainage capacity


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  • In Gist;

  • Impact of tsunami on animal production in terms of,

  • Animal destruction

  • Feed resources loss

  • Soil fertility loss ( soil salinity)


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TSUNAMI-Disaster management /Restocking programmes

FOR ANIMALS

  • Waste management

  • Animal health/Veterinary services

  • Vaccination

  • Poultry : Avian Influenza, New castle disease

  • Pigs : Swine fever,FMD, JE

  • Sheep and Goat : PPR and Pasteurolosis

  • Cattle : PPR,HS,FMD and Anthrax

  • Supplementation of feed,water and shelter

  • Veterinary public health.


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  • For plants

  • Supplementation suitable seeds,

  • Evolving suitable crops

  • ‘VTL’-salt tolerant Varity of paddy

  • For pastures- Chenopodiaceae family


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  • For soils

  • 1st priority: To ensure quick drainage of salt water

  • 2nd priority : Restore physical integrity of the fields

  • Salt deposition

  • Upto 30-50 mm salt deposition reported.

  • -Removal of salt deposit, coarser elements

  • - leaching:

  • Through regular watering by rain fall or irrigation


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  • In gist;

  • Animal health programme

  • Provision of suitable seeds

    to farmer

  • Desalination of soil


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Feeding strategies

1. Transportation of fodder

Main strategy in disaster (Tsunami)

management

Densification of fibrous feeds.

2. Complete feed block feeding

3. Exploiting new feed resources

Exploiting locally available unconventional fodder resources

Addition of molasses to improve the palatability

Mixing with routine feed


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  • 4. Urea supplementation

  • Economic NPN compound

  • Mode of feeding urea:

  • Treatment of straws with urea

  • Addition to concentrate feed

  • Urea molasses mineral block

  • Urea liquid supplementation

5. Conservation of fodder

Green fodder conservation

Depending on facility.

Either as silage or hay


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TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM

In 1965- International Tsunami Information Centre (ITIC).

  • Under water earth quakes are monitored by sensors on the floor of the sea

  • The sensors pass on information to floating buoys on the surface whenever they detect any change in sea pressure

  • Information is then relayed to satellite which pass it on to the earth stations.

  • Inform well in advance 3 to 14 hours.


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  • Impact of feeding salty feed and saline water on animal production

  • Animal salt tolerance depend on ability of kidney to increase glomerular filtration rate and decrease salt reabsorption rate.

  • Exert inhibitory effect on rumen microflora

  • Decreased milk production

  • Increased osmotic pressure

  • Alter thyroid hormone function

  • Decrease protein synthesis.


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Cont..

In poultry: Detoriation of egg shell quality

Symptoms of salt poisoning :

Excessive thirst

Muscular weakness

Edema.


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Strategies for coastal eco security

  • Environmentally sustainable management of the coastal zone.

  • Strengthening if ecological foundations

  • Rehabilitation of mangrove forests

  • Erection of bio shields

(M.S. SwamiNathan)


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Bioshields consists of;

Planting appropriate mangrove species

Salt tolerant plants

Saliorine atriplex

Casuarina Sp.

Thespesia Sp.

And some species of Bamboo

(M.S. SwamiNathan)


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CONCLUSION

  • Local level plans to be drawn up for evacuating animals at short notice at the time of Tsunami alert

  • Fodder conservation

  • Animal health management.


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