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Scientific Databases Lecture: Hubble Space Telescope Science Databases. Dr. Kirk Borne, GMU SCS November 11, 2003 GMU CSI 710. Outline. Introduction to the Information Age Data Mining - a target application area for scientific databases Hubble Space Telescope (HST) HST Databases

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Scientific databases lecture hubble space telescope science databases l.jpg

Scientific Databases Lecture:Hubble Space Telescope Science Databases

Dr. Kirk Borne, GMU SCS

November 11, 2003

GMU CSI 710


Outline l.jpg
Outline

  • Introduction to the Information Age

  • Data Mining - a target application area for scientific databases

  • Hubble Space Telescope (HST)

  • HST Databases

  • HST Science Data Archive

  • Multi-mission Archive at Space Telescope (MAST)

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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The Information Age

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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The Information Age is Here!

  • "Data doubles about every year, but useful information seems to be decreasing."

    • Margaret Dunham, "Data Mining Techniques & Algorithms", 2002

  • "There is a growing gap between the generation of data and our understanding of it."

    • Witten & Frank, "Data Mining: Practical Machine Learning Tools", 1999

  • "The trouble with facts is that there are so many of them"

    • Samuel McChord Crothers, "The Gentle Reader", 1973

  • "Get your facts first, and then you can distort them as much as you please."

    • Mark Twain

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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Characteristics of The Information Age:

  • Data “Avalanche”

    • the flood of Terabytes of data is already happening, whether we like it or not

    • our present techniques of handling these data do not scale well with data volume

  • Distributed Digital Archives

    • will be the main access to data

    • will need to handle hundreds to thousands of queries per day

  • Systematic Data Exploration and Data Mining

    • will have a central role

      • statistical analysis of “typical” events

      • automated search for “rare” events

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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Data Mining Application: Outlier Detection

Figure: The clustering of data clouds (dc#) within a multidimensional parameter space (p#).

Such a mapping can be used to search for and identify clusters, voids, outliers, one-of-kinds, relationships, and associations among arbitrary parameters in a database (or among various parameters in geographically distributed databases).

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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Data Mining = A Target Application Area for Scientific Databases

http://nvo.gsfc.nasa.gov/nvo_datamining.html

http://nvo.gsfc.nasa.gov/nvo_datamining.html

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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What is Data Mining? DatabasesHere is one idea …

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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What is Data Mining? Databases

  • Data mining is defined as “an information extraction activity whose goal is to discover hidden facts contained in (large) databases."

  • Data mining is used to find patterns and relationships in data. (EDA = Exploratory Data Analysis)

  • Patterns can be analyzed via 2 types of models:

    • Descriptive : Describe patterns and to create meaningful subgroups or clusters.

    • Predictive : Forecast explicit values, based upon patterns in known results.

  • How does this apply to Scientific Research? …

    • through KNOWLEDGE DISCOVERY

      Data  Information  Knowledge  Understanding / Wisdom!

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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Some words of wisdom Databases

  • "We have confused information (of which there is too much) with ideas (of which there are too few)."

    • Paul Theroux

  • "The great Information Age is really an explosion of non-information; it is an explosion of data ... it is imperative to distinguish between the two; information is that which leads to understanding."

    • R.S. Wurman in his book: Information Anxiety2

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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Scientific data have a purpose … Databases

Data  Information  Knowledge  Understanding / Wisdom!

  • EXAMPLE :

  • Data = 00100100111010100111100 (stored in database)

  • Information = ages and heights of children (metadata)

  • Knowledge = the older children tend to be taller

  • Understanding = children’s bones grow as they get older

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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Astronomy Example Databases

Data:

(a) Imaging data (ones & zeroes)

(b) Spectral data (ones & zeroes)

Information (catalogs / databases):

  • Measure brightness of galaxies from image (e.g., 14.2 or 21.7)

  • Measure redshift of galaxies from spectrum (e.g., 0.0167 or 0.346)

Knowledge:

Hubble Diagram 

Redshift-Brightness Correlation 

Redshift = Distance

Understanding: the Universe is expanding!!

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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What is the Goal of DatabasesBuilding and Maintaining Scientific Databases?

  • The end goal is not the data themselves, but the new knowledge and understanding that are revealed through the analysis of the data.

  • This is why the Data Mining research field is usually referred to asKDD = Knowledge Discovery in Databases.

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Databaseshttp://www.stsci.edu/

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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HST satellite architecture Databases

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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HST focal plane layout Databases

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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HST Scientific Instruments Databases

  • 1990: WFPC, FOC, FOS, GHRS, HSP, FGS

  • 1993: WFPC2, COSTAR(removed WFPC, HSP)

  • 1997: NICMOS, STIS(removed FOS, GHRS)

  • 1999: 1 of 3 FGS sensors and all 6 gyros were replaced

  • 2002: ACS, NICMOS cryocooler upgrade(removed FOC)

  • 2004(?): COS, WF3 (will remove WFPC2, COSTAR)

    • Cameras

    • Spectrometers

    • Photometer

    • Fine Guidance Sensor

    • Optical Path Correction Device

      More details at:http://www.ess.sunysb.edu/fwalter/AST443/hst.html

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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The Nature of Astronomical Data Databases

  • Imaging

    • 2D map of the sky at multiple wavelengths

  • Derived catalogs

    • subsequent processing of images

    • extracting object parameters (400+ per object)

  • Spectroscopic follow-up

    • spectra: more detailed object properties

    • clues to physical state and formation history

    • lead to distances: 3D maps

  • Numerical simulations

  • All inter-related!

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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Derived data from images: tables of numbers, that can be plotted to study correlations

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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The Electromagnetic Spectrum plotted to study correlations

  • Radiation is the Astronomer’s only source of information about the Universe!

  • And it is a remarkably rich & diverse source!

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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Need Multi-Wavelength Science Instruments to Observe a Multi-Wavelength Universe

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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NASA Astronomy Mission Data: Multi-Wavelength Universethe tip of the data mountain

NSSDC’s

astrophysics

data

holdings:

One of many

science data

collections

for astronomy

across the US

and the world!

NSSDC =

National

Space Science

Data Center

@ NASA/GSFC

Hubble Space Telescope Databases

http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/astro/astrolist.html


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Why so many Telescopes? Multi-Wavelength Universe

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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Why so many Telescopes? … Multi-Wavelength Universe

Because …

  • Many great astronomical

  • discoveries have come

  • from inter-comparisons

  • of various wavelengths:

  • Quasars

  • Gamma-ray bursts

  • Ultraluminous IR galaxies

  • X-ray black-hole binaries

  • Radio galaxies

  • . . .

Overlay

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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Therefore, our science data Multi-Wavelength Universe

archive systems should enable

multi-wavelength interdisciplinary

distributed database access,

discovery, mining, and analysis.

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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So what wavelengths does HST observe? Multi-Wavelength Universe

Range

of 101

in λ

Range

of >1016

in λ

Full

Electromagnetic

Spectrum

HST

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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Where has HST looked? Multi-Wavelength Universe

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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HST’s cameras have very small field-of-view Multi-Wavelength Universe

3o

HST

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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Edwin Hubble Multi-Wavelength Universemeasured distances to galaxies, and thereby discovered expansion of the Universe.

The #1 goal of HST:

to measure the expansion

rate of the Universe to within

10% uncertainty. Previously,

it was not known to within

a factor of 2 = typical

astronomical accuracy, but

definitely not good enough.

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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Henrietta Leavitt measured Multi-Wavelength Universebrightness variations of 1000’s of stars –the basis for the distance scale of the Universe

The Cephus

Constellation:

“The King”

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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Variable Star Data Examples Multi-Wavelength Universe

  • Periodic -- sinusoidal:

  • Periodic -- smooth non-sine:

  • Periodic -- spiked events:

  • Aperiodic events:

  • Single spiked events:

  • Single long-duration events:

(Chirp)

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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Real Cepheid variable star data. Multi-Wavelength UniverseNote the characteristic light curve shape – a rapid rise, and then slow decline …

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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Cepheid Variables = Cosmic Yardsticks Multi-Wavelength Universe

Period-Luminosity

Relation – shows

2 types of Cepheid

Variables – notice

the 2 bands in this

correlation plot.

We need to know

which Cepheid type

to assign to a given

star in order to get

the star’s distance

right!

The most famous

example is Polaris =

The North Star.

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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Cepheids: just one step in the Multi-Wavelength UniverseCosmic Distance Scale Ladder

PNLF

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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HST reaches its goal! Multi-Wavelength UniverseDetermines expansion rate to within 10%, and age of Universe = 14 billion yrs

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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But, HST almost didn’t get it right at all ! Multi-Wavelength UniverseWhy? … well… something about a mirror problem.Bad news early in 1990.

This is HST’s

first-light image --

not too impressive.

This should have

told us that things

were less than

expected.

Note that the left and right images are not particularly different in image resolution quality.

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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HST should have much better image resolution. Multi-Wavelength UniverseResolution is measured in arcseconds.1 degree = 60 arcminutes = 3600 arcsecondsNote that the moon is ½ degree (30 arcmin) on the sky.

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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HST image is better, but not dramatically … Multi-Wavelength Universeand not even particularly scientifically new.

Ground

Telescope

image

HST

image

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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COSTAR installed in December 1993. Multi-Wavelength UniverseSo let us compare before and after images.

PLUTO

and its

moon

BEFORE

REPAIR

(1990)

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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AFTER Optical Repair Multi-Wavelength Universe (1994)

Can you notice any difference from previous slide?

Pluto’s moon

Charon

Pluto

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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Here is the real comparison test : Multi-Wavelength UniverseBefore and After images of a single star!

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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Software fixes Multi-Wavelength Universe

  • Before COSTAR was installed in 1993:

    • Image restoration (deconvolution) was needed.

    • One of the image restoration algorithms was later used on a regular basis for the analysis of medical images in potential cancer patients (mammograms).

    • To design and build COSTAR, an exact mapping of the image distortion characteristics had to be derived from long and numerous HST images of star fields … for each science instrument (S.I.) and each mode of that S.I. … the design of the telescope architecture then became important for the design of the science database and data analysis systems.

    • All new science instruments now include this optical correction within their design.

    • Users of the Science Data Archive need database info to track the condition of each image; and need image processing tools to correct pre-COSTAR images.

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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Multi-Wavelength UniverseBefore Repair” images of a Globular Cluster.(note how the smeared images of single stars overlapand therefore ruin any chance of studying individual stars in this massive pile of 100,000 stars)

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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The Multi-Wavelength UniverseAFTER IMAGEof a globular clusterNeed I say more??

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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Okay, I will say more … Multi-Wavelength UniverseIndividual White Dwarf Stars were identified and discoveredfor the first time ever in Globular Clusters, as predicted by stellar evolution theories since the 1930’s.

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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Therefore, the mirror flaw is what could have prevented HST from fulfilling its #1 goal.

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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But there is so much more – Here are a few of from fulfilling its #1 goal.the “big impact” HST science results!

  • Hubble expansion rate & age of Universe

  • Super star clusters in merging galaxies

  • Massive black holes in every(?) galaxy

  • Quasar host galaxies revealed

  • Protoplanetary disks found and studied

  • Starbirth unveiled and mapped in exquisite detail

  • Supernovae and novae shells resolved

  • Hierarchical evolution of galaxies proven

  • Most distant galaxies ever seen

  • Storms on planets

  • Kuiper belt comets found

  • Outflows from young stars

  • Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) sources solved, at last!

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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HST: 1990-2010, and beyond? from fulfilling its #1 goal.Already a rich legacy of spectacular images & discoveries.

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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What comes next? ... The JWST from fulfilling its #1 goal.

  • The Next-Generation Space Telescope is now named the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST): launch in 2011?

  • If HST has shown the first galaxies, then JWST will see the first stars (“first light in the Universe”)

  • JWST will include some on-board processing (controversial)

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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HST Databases from fulfilling its #1 goal.

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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The HST Data Pipeline = how the data flows from fulfilling its #1 goal.

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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What types of databases are needed for HST? from fulfilling its #1 goal.

  • Science Instrument (S.I.) observations

  • Engineering - instrument status

  • Telemetry - satellite status

  • Scientific users - P.I. information

  • Proposals - abstracts, titles, proposers, etc.

  • Approved programs - who, what, where

  • Science observation scheduling – mission calendars

  • Science data processing system

  • Calibration data - for every S.I. mode & filter

  • … and more …

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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Levels of Science Data Processing from fulfilling its #1 goal.

http://mars96.dlr.de/science/processing.shtml

  • Level 0 (preprocessing output)compressed, unmerged raw data

  • Level 1 (edited output)decompressed, merged data (i.e. data from different ground stations and different telemetry frames are combined into a consistent file)

  • Level 2 (standard processing output)photometrically corrected data (based on in-flight and laboratory calibration sets)

  • Level 3 (systematic processing output)geometrically corrected data (based on “ground truth” calibration information)

  • Level 4 (scientific processing output; value-added)specific value-added scientific data products:

    • models and image overlays

    • combined images from multiple instruments and filters

    • analyzed data

    • coordinate-rectified products (maps)

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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HST Archive Databases from fulfilling its #1 goal.

  • 3 archive databases: http://archive.stsci.edu/hst/manual/datadesc.htm

    • Catalog database:

      • contains information on scientific and engineering datasets

      • 45 tables = archive_data_set_all, proposal, target_keyword, science, shp_data, scan_parameters, wfpc2_primary_data, wfpc2_ref_data, moving_target_position, archive_extensions, … etc.

    • Proposal database:

      • contains information on observations that have been approved

      • 11 tables = abstract, address_view, conflicts, conflicts_abstract, coverpage, exposure, proposals, prop_track, su_track, tar_fixedpos_j2000, targets

    • Calibration database (CDBS):

      • provides information on the raw data used to create the recommended reference files (files used to calibrate the science data)

      • 2 sets of files for each S.I. = Reference Files, Reference Tables. Plus additional synthetic calibration data files. Therefore, CDBS consists of at least 20 tables.

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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HST Science Data Archive from fulfilling its #1 goal.

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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General Features of Science Data Archives from fulfilling its #1 goal.

  • Data need to be calibrated and processed

  • Data are often reprocessed (enhanced data product)

  • Data values have associated errors (S/N)

  • Derived data products are routinely generated

  • Science database front-end (data-ordering GUI)

  • Hierarchical storage management (HSM):

    • On-line: Metadata, ordering system database

    • Near-line: Cached “popular” (processed) data products

    • Off-line: Deep archive of full (raw) data sets

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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Simple User Model of a Science Data Archive from fulfilling its #1 goal.

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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HST Science Data Archive History from fulfilling its #1 goal.

  • NASA originally did not expect to have a science data archive for HST

  • Assumed that primary data users would be the P.I. teams and STScI (Science Institute) personnel only

  • Archival Science research was considered low priority, at best

  • Original storage system was DMF = Data Management Facility

    • As name suggests, it was primarily to manage the HST data, not to distribute it to science users

  • Interim solution for Archival Researchers (1990-1993): AEC = Archived Exposures Catalog -- listed main observation and proposal parameters to help search for science data (AEC is still used today – “poor mans HST science database” – invented by yours truly)

  • Permanent HST Science Data Archive came on-line in early 1994): ST-DADS = Space Telescope Data Archive and Distribution System

  • Transition from DMF to ST-DADS took 2 years:

    • Data Verification (4 years of data, from all science instruments and modes, plus non-science db)

    • Software and Hardware: installation and verification and upgrades

    • Database design and implementation (data warehouse for tracking and accessing the data)

    • StarView User Interface developed for science users to query the full HST science data archive

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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HST Science Archive Features from fulfilling its #1 goal.

  • On-the-fly (OTF) calibration:

    • BEST (recommended) versus USED calibration reference files

  • Quick-look science database table:

    • composite of frequently used information found in a number of other tables. By combining this information into a single table, the speed of searches through the archive is improved (few or zero joins).

  • Data previews (thumbnails):

    http://archive.stsci.edu/hst/search.php

  • Ad hoc queries (user-generated SQL queries)

  • Duplication / Conflict tracking (proprietary observations)

  • Scrapbook of multiple obs for single objects:

    http://archive.stsci.edu/scrapbook.php

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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I from fulfilling its #1 goal.Denotes the instrument type:

J - Advanced Camera for Surveys

U - Wide Field / Planetary Camera 2

V - High Speed Photometer

W - Wide Field / Planetary Camera

X - Faint Object Camera

Y - Faint Object Spectrograph

Z - Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph

E - Reserved for engineering data

F - Fine Guide Sensor (Astrometry)

H-I,M - Reserved for additional instruments

N - Near Infrared Camera Multi Object Spectrograph

O - Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph

S - Reserved for engineering subset data

T - Reserved for guide star position data

PPPDenotes the program ID, any combination of letters or numbers

SSDenotes the observation set ID, any combination of letters or numbers

OODenotes the observation ID, any combination of letters or numbers

TDenotes the source of transmission:

R - Real time (not tape recorded)

T - Tape recorded

M - Merged real time and tape recorded

N - Retransmitted merged real time and tape recorded

O - Retransmitted real time

P - Retransmitted tape recorded

Unique Identifiers for HST Science Observation Datasets:

  • dataset_ID = IPPPSSOOT(9-character SI-specific naming convention)

  • Used to track dataset info through all HST database tables

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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Sample dataset_ID values from fulfilling its #1 goal.

  • K.Borne’s WFPC2 image of Cartwheel Ring Galaxy = U2JB0101T

  • K.Borne’s WFPC2 image of an UltraLuminous IR Galaxy = U33L2001M

  • K.Borne’s NICMOS image of an UltraLuminous IR Galaxy = N4GV1201O

Another

ring galaxy?

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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Sample Raw Image: quite a mess – from fulfilling its #1 goal.really needs some image processing

This has already been

processed a little bit …

The WFPC2 is actually

4 separate 800x800 cameras in one! The images from the 4 separate cameras have already been mosaicked into the one image here.

3 of those cameras (WF) are the same, while the 4th camera (PC) is different (different pixel scale only).

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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HST images are not in color. from fulfilling its #1 goal.

Pixel values are “grey” : 0 to 216-1 (65535).

(16 bits per pixel)

Multiple images through different filters are combined to reconstruct a color image.

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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M from fulfilling its #1 goal.ultiwavelengthview of a Spiral Galaxy

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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Multi-mission Archive from fulfilling its #1 goal.at Space Telescope (MAST)

Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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MAST - as part of ADEC from fulfilling its #1 goal.

  • NASA has several astrophysics data centers:

    • UV/Optical mission data @ MAST

    • X-ray/GammaRay @ HEASARC

    • IR/Radio @ IPAC

    • Microwave @ LAMBDA

    • Astronomy literature @ ADS

    • Extragalactic (catalog) Database @ NED

    • Mission-specific centers @ SIRTF, Chandra

    • Permanent NASA archive @ NSSDC

    • Astronomy data tables (thousands) @ former-ADC (closed in 2002)

    • European partner data center @ CDS

  • Coordinated by the Astrophysics Data Centers Executive Council (ADEC) @ http://www.adccc.org/

  • Hubble Space Telescope Databases


    Nasa s adec l.jpg
    NASA’s ADEC from fulfilling its #1 goal.

    • Coordinates NASA data centers’ roles and protocols

    • Coordinates data and metadata standards

    • Integrates all NASA astro mission data sets

    • Shares resources

    • Maximizes NASA data centers efficiency

    • Reduces duplication of effort

    • Sets priorities across NASA data centers

    • MAST is one member of ADEC, and HST is one of many NASA astrophysics data sets managed and distributed through MAST.

    Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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    MAST from fulfilling its #1 goal.data sets

    • Missions:

      • HST

      • EUVE

      • IUE

      • FUSE

    • Catalogs and Surveys:

      • GALEX

      • GSC

      • VLA-FIRST

    • Astro-1,2 = HUT, UIT, WUPPE

    • ROSAT (WFC)

    • Copernicus

    • BEFS, IMAPS, ORFEUS

      • Digital Sky Survey (DSS)

      • Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)

    Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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    How does one integrate and use these distributed data archives? …

    Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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    …The National Virtual Observatory (NVO) archives? …

    • National Academy of Sciences “Decadal Survey” recommended NVO as highest priority small (<$100M) project :

      “Several small initiatives recommended by the committee span both ground and space. The first among them—the National Virtual Observatory (NVO)—is the committee’s top priority among the small initiatives. The NVO will provide a “virtual sky” based on the enormous data sets being created now and the even larger ones proposed for the future. It will enable a new mode of research for professional astronomers and will provide to the public an unparalleled opportunity for education and discovery.” (p.14)

    Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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    Next Lectures archives? …

    • November 18 – Virtual Observatories for Space Science (interoperable systems for science research)

    • November 25 – Intelligent Archives of the Future

    Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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    Simple User Model of a Science Data Archive - 1 archives? …

    Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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    Simple User Model of a Science Data Archive - 2 archives? …

    Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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    SUMMARY archives? …

    • Introduction to the Information Age

    • Data Mining - a target application area for scientific databases

    • Hubble Space Telescope (HST)

    • HST Databases

    • HST Science Data Archive

    • Multi-mission Archive at Space Telescope (MAST)

    Hubble Space Telescope Databases


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