Energy transfer in exercise
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Energy Transfer in Exercise. Immediate Energy. ATP-CP stored in muscle sprints heavy weightlifting events < 10-15 seconds. Short-Term Energy. Lactic Acid Anaerobic Glycolysis  LA Intermediate energy source Maximal intensity for 60-180 seconds 400 meter run 100 meter swim.

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Immediate energy l.jpg
Immediate Energy

  • ATP-CP stored in muscle

  • sprints

  • heavy weightlifting

  • events < 10-15 seconds


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Short-Term Energy

  • Lactic Acid

  • Anaerobic Glycolysis  LA

  • Intermediate energy source

  • Maximal intensity for 60-180 seconds

  • 400 meter run

  • 100 meter swim


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Blood Lactate Concentration

25

50

75

100

Percent VO2 max

Blood Lactate Concentration

Untrained Threshold

Untrained

Trained

Trained Threshold


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Factors Related to Lactate Threshold

  • Low tissue O2 (hypoxia)

  • Dependence on glycolysis

  • Activation of FT muscle fibers

  • Reduced ability to remove lactate


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Training the Lactate Threshold

  • Training can  threshold by 20-30%

  • genetics

  • training effect of producing less LA

  • training effect of more efficient LA removal


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20

15

Trained

10

Untrained

5

0

4

6

8

2

Exercise Time (min.)

Long-Term Energy

Oxygen Uptake (ml / kg-min)


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Steady State/Rate

  • Initiation of Exercise

  • O2 uptake rises exponentially

  • Plateau is reached between 3-4 minutes


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Oxygen Deficit

  • Quantity of O2 that would have been consumed had steady state been reach immediately


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Oxygen Deficit

  • Endurance training  reach steady-state sooner  total O2 consumption is    anaerobic component


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VO2max

  • With progressively demanding aerobic exercise, region where O2 uptake plateaus

  • Represents an individual’s capacity for aerobic resynthesis of ATP

  • Helps determine one’s ability to sustain high intensity exercise for longer than 4-5 minutes



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Energy Spectrum

100

Percent of Total Energy Yield

50

10

60

30

Maximal Exercise Time (minutes)


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O2 Dept

O2 requirement

O2 deficit

O2 Dept

O2 Consumption

Steady-state O2 consumption

Resting O2 consumption

Start Exercise

End Exercise

End Recovery

Exercise Time


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Classic O2 Dept (EPOC) Theory

  • Fast component – represents O2 required to rebuild ATP and CP

  • Slow component – removal of tissue lactate via conversion to glycogen or oxidation to CO2 and H2O


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Contemporary EPOC Theory

  • Short duration, light to moderate exercise 

  • Recovery O2 serves to replenish high-energy phosphates (several minutes


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Contemporary EPOC Theory

  • Longer duration, high intensity aerobic exercise 

  • Much longer period of O2 uptake

  • Some used for lactate  glycogen


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Causes of EPOC following Heavy Exercise

  • Resynthesize ATP and CP

  • Resynthesize lactate to glycogen

  • Oxidate lactate in energy metabolism

  • Restore O2 to blood

  • Thermogenic effects of elevated core temp.

  • Thermogenic effects of hormones

  • Effects of  HR, ventilation, & other functions.


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Recovery

  • Steady state aerobic exercise or 5 to 10 second bouts of maximal exercise  not lactate accumulation  recovery is rapid

  • Fast component


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Recovery

  • Longer periods of anaerobic exercise 

  • Lactate accumulation

  • Fast and slow components


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Recovery

  • Exercise at 50% of VO2max can be continued at steady-state w/o build up

  • At 60-75% of VO2max – no steady-state  lactate accumulates

  • Lactate removal is accelerated by aerobic exercise


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