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Early Greece. Aegean Culture. Cyclades Islands Bronze tools Imaginative/humorous pottery Marble statues/idols Peaceful fishing / agriculture society. Bronze Age in Crete. Arthur Evans, 1894-1900 Crete King Minos / Knossos Early Minoan Increasing growth Scattered Towns. [Image 1.22]

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aegean culture
Aegean Culture

Cyclades Islands

  • Bronze tools
  • Imaginative/humorous pottery
  • Marble statues/idols
  • Peaceful fishing / agriculture society
bronze age in crete
Bronze Age in Crete
  • Arthur Evans, 1894-1900
  • Crete
    • King Minos / Knossos
  • Early Minoan
    • Increasing growth
    • Scattered Towns
slide6

[Image 1.22]

Palace of Minos at Knossos

middle minoan
Middle Minoan
  • Evolution of large urban centers
  • Art = lively and colorful
  • Little interest in monumental art
  • Writing system of hieroglyphic signs
slide10

[Image 1.25]

Wasp Pendant

late minoan
Late Minoan
  • Period of rebuilding after earthquakes
  • High point of Minoan culture
  • Linear A / Linear B writing
  • Religion centered upon mother goddess connected with fertility
slide12

[Image 1.27]

Snake Goddess

slide15

[Image 1.28]

Funerary Mask

mycenaean culture
Mycenaean Culture
  • Heinrich Schliemann, 1870-1873
    • The Trojan War (1250 B.C.E.)
  • Strongly influenced by Minoan Culture
  • Art = preoccupied with death and war
  • Fall of the Mycenaean empire (1200 B.C.E.)
history of early greece
History of Early Greece

Three Main Periods

  • The Heroic Age
  • The Age of Colonization
  • The Archaic Period
the heroic age
The Heroic Age
  • Religious Worldview
    • Civic (city-state deities)
    • Private (chthonic deities)
  • Urban Lifestyle
    • Polis
    • Acropolis
    • Agora
  • Human – not divine Solutions
slide20

[Image 2.1]

Zeus (Poseidon?)

the iliad the odyssey
The Iliad & The Odyssey
  • “the Homeric question”
  • Oral Tradition
    • Epithets
  • Iliad
    • Theme of Human Responsibility
    • Elaborate Similes
  • Odyssey
    • Return of the Epic Hero
the iliad
The Iliad

Greeks:

Achilles

Agamemnon

Menelaus

Helen

Patroclus

Trojans:

Hektor

Paris

Priam

Key Players:

Thetis

The Gods

themes
Themes
  • Anger
  • War
  • Glory
  • Honor
the odyssey
The Odyssey
  • Continues after the Trojan War
  • Odysseus’ journey home to Ithica
  • Hero’s returns despite trials
art and heroic age society
Art and Heroic Age Society
  • Painted Vases
    • Protogeometric (1000-900 B.C.E.)
      • Concentric circles, semi-circles
    • Geometric (900-700 B.C.E.)
      • Linear designs, the meander
      • Human Forms (~800 B.C.E.)
  • Amphora /Amphorae
age of colonization
Age of Colonization
  • Prosperity of City-States
    • Competition, Image
  • Wealth + Over-Population = Colonization
    • Italy, Sicily, Egypt, Asia Minor
  • Trade and Cultural Exposure
    • Orientalizing
visual arts at corinth and athens
Visual Artsat Corinth and Athens
  • Corinthian Art
    • Eastern Motifs
    • Commercially Successful
  • Athenian Art
    • Narrative style (Myth, Daily Life)
  • Trade Rivalry: Corinth vs. Athens
the beginnings of greek sculpture
The Beginnings ofGreek Sculpture
  • Heavy Egyptian influence
  • Kore / Korai (Female)
  • Kouros / Kouroi (Male)
  • Increasing Realism, Naturalism
    • Careful study of human anatomy
    • Representation of Life and vigor
sculpture and painting in the archaic period
Sculpture and Painting in the Archaic Period
  • Tyrants / Artistic Patronage
  • Artistic Developments
    • Freestanding Figures
    • The “Archaic Smile”
    • Vase Painting
      • Black- and Red-Figure Styles
slide32

[Image 2.9]

Calf-Bearer

slide33

[Image 2.13]

Kritios Boy

slide35

[Image 2.15]

Euphronios, painter, Euxitheos, potter, red-figure calyx krater

architecture the doric order
Architecture:The Doric Order
  • Simple dignity
  • No Base/20 flutes
  • Capital
    • Echinus, Abacus
  • Entablature
    • Architrave, frieze, triglyphs/metopes
  • Cornice, Pediment
slide37

[Image 2.16]

Basilica at Paestum

architecture the ionic order
Architecture:The Ionic Order
  • Ornate, fanciful
  • Tiered Base/24 flutes
  • Capital
    • Volutes
  • 3-D Architraves
  • Running Frieze
literature
Literature
  • Lyric verse vs. Heroic verse
    • Sappho
  • Herodotus (Father of History)
    • History of the Persian Wars
    • Right over Might
    • Hubris
protagoras
Protagoras

“Man is the measure of all things, of the existence of those that exist, and the nonexistence of those that do not”

First culture to be human-centered.

pre socratic philosophy
Pre-Socratic Philosophy
  • Materialists
    • Explain phenomena through elements
    • Thales – water
    • Anaxagoras – reason
  • Pythagoranism
    • Mathematics - underlying principle of the universe / moral life
pre socratic philosophy43
Pre-Socratic Philosophy
  • Dualists
    • Two universes
      • One of perfection - Reason (unseen)
      • One of change (temporal)
  • Atomists
    • Unchanging Reality consists of small unseen particles (atoms) in the void
chapter 2 discussion questions
Chapter 2: Discussion Questions
  • What significant differences exist between the cultures of the iron age and those of the bronze age? Explain.
  • Consider the role of religion in Early Greece. What does Early Greek theology suggest about the concerns of the society? Explain.
  • What were the causes for and the results of Greek colonization? Cite specific examples.
  • Explain the new directions of art in the Archaic Period. What do these changes suggest about the culture that was producing and patronizing this art?
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