Drowning and near drowning
1 / 25

Drowning and Near Drowning - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Updated On :

Drowning and Near Drowning. Temple College EMS Professions. Definitions. Drowning = Death by suffocation after immersion in liquid Near drowning = Episode in which person initially survives immersion in liquid. Dry Lung 15% of cases Small amount of H 2 0 aspirated

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Drowning and Near Drowning' - Melvin

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Drowning and near drowning l.jpg

Drowning and Near Drowning

Temple College

EMS Professions

Definitions l.jpg

  • Drowning = Death by suffocation after immersion in liquid

  • Near drowning = Episode in which person initially survives immersion in liquid

Drowning types l.jpg

Dry Lung

15% of cases

Small amount of H20 aspirated

Laryngospasm occurs, closes airway

Patient asphyxiates

Wet Lung

85% of cases

Large amounts of water enter lungs

Fluid, electrolyte imbalances occur

Drowning Types

Wet lung fresh water l.jpg
Wet Lung: Fresh Water

  • Water moves from alveoli to bloodstream

  • Hemodilution occurs

  • O2 carrying capacity

Wet lung fresh water5 l.jpg
Wet Lung - Fresh Water

  • Water moves into red cells

  • Red cells swell, rupture

    • Potassium Arrhythmias

    • Release of hemoglobin into bloodstream Renal failure

  • Loss of surfactant Collapse of alveoli

Wet lung salt water l.jpg
Wet Lung: Salt Water

  • Water moves from bloodstream to alveoli

  • Hemoconcentration occurs Shock

  • Pulmonary edema occurs

Near drowning l.jpg
Near Drowning

  • Do not attempt swimming rescue without proper training

  • Throw - Tow - Row - Go

Near drowning8 l.jpg
Near Drowning

  • Consider possible neck injury:

    • Diving accidents

    • Swimming pools

    • Inadequate history

  • Place patient on spineboard in water

Near drowning9 l.jpg
Near Drowning

  • If possible, begin pulmonary resuscitation in water

  • Resuscitate all cold water drowning (<72oF)

    • Mammalian Diving Reflex

    • Survivability

Transport all near drownings l.jpg

Transport all near drownings!

Regardless of how good they look!

Scuba l.jpg

  • Self-contained underwater breathing apparatus

  • Regulator on compressed air cylinder matches pressure of inhaled air to surrounding water pressure

  • Allows diver to expand chest normally

Scuba13 l.jpg

  • Use causes:

    • Collection of pressurized air in body air spaces (alveoli, sinuses, middle ear)

    • Dissolving of gas (particularly nitrogen) in body fluids

Scuba14 l.jpg

  • Diver must control ascent to prevent:

    • Rapid expansion of gas in lungs, sinuses, middle ear

    • Formation of nitrogen bubbles in blood and body tissues

Scuba problems squeeze l.jpg

Inability to equalize pressure in sinuses, middle ear

Causes pain

SCUBA Problems: Squeeze

Scuba problems ear drum rupture l.jpg

Inability to equalize pressure in middle ear Perforation of tympanic membrane

Causes disequilibrium

SCUBA Problems: Ear Drum Rupture

Nitrogen narcosis l.jpg

“Rapture of the Deep” of tympanic membrane

Caused by breathing compressed air under pressure

Pressurized N2 is toxic to CNS

Disorientation, confusion result

Problem disappears on surfacing

Nitrogen Narcosis

Air embolism l.jpg

Patient holds breath, surfaces suddenly of tympanic membrane

Compressed air in alveoli expands  Lung tissue tears Air enters pulmonary circulation, is pumped to brain

Air Embolism

Air embolism can occur in a swimming pool!

Air embolism signs symptoms l.jpg

Sudden extremity weakness, numbness of tympanic membrane


Dilated pupil on affected side

Seizures, coma

Air Embolism Signs/Symptoms

Air embolism signs symptoms20 l.jpg
Air Embolism Signs/Symptoms of tympanic membrane

What problem does air embolism resemble?


Management of air embolism l.jpg

High concentration O of tympanic membrane2

Assist ventilations, as needed

Left side, 300 head down

Transport to recompression chamber

Management of Air Embolism

Decompression sickness l.jpg

“Bends” of tympanic membrane

Diver dives deeply or too long

Does not ascend slowly enough to let dissolved nitrogen leak out of blood gradually

Nitrogen bubbles form in tissues, obstruct vessels

Decompression Sickness

Decompression sickness types l.jpg

Pain only (joint) bends of tympanic membrane Aching, boring pain in joints

CNS bends  Bubbles affect blood flow to brain or spinal cord

“Chokes”  Bubbles obstruct blood flow through lungs

Decompression Sickness Types

Decompression sickness management l.jpg

High concentration oxygen feet

Assisted ventilations, as needed


Decompression Sickness Management