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Some . Principles of Design. IN MUSIC. Some. PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN. REPETITION VARIATION CONTRAST BALANCE – symmetry/asymmetry EMPHASIS - accent ECONOMY PROPORTION SCALE. Eadweard Muybridge, photographer. Repetition/Variation in Music.

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principles of design2

Some

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN

REPETITION VARIATIONCONTRAST

BALANCE – symmetry/asymmetry

EMPHASIS - accent

ECONOMY

PROPORTION

SCALE

repetition variation in music
Repetition/Variation in Music

Small-scale repetition creates a sense of pulse, rhythm and meter

Motific repetition is used to build phrases

Repetition of group of notes is a pattern called an ostinato

Large-scale repetition creates FORM

slide5

an idea returns after contrasting sections

phrases repeated immediately

within the phrase

some repetition in music
Some repetition in music

PHILIP GLASS

EINSTEIN ON THE BEACH

(an opera)

mozart symphony no 40 in g minor 1 st movement
Mozart Symphony No. 40 in G minor,1ST movement

The motif is immediately repeated and varied – the music is built with this motif (aka motive)

This section of music will return a minute later and then a couple of minutes later – large-scale, sectional repetition

mozart symphony no 40 in g minor 3rd movement
Mozart Symphony No. 40 in G minor,3rd movement
  • each section is repeated
  • the first 2 sections return after a contrasting section
  • General form (design) is ABA
  • Specifically, it is aabbccddab (does anyone listen that way?)
  • Based on dance music, but it is not dance music
  • triple meter
slide12

Mozart Symphony No. 40 in G minor,3rd movement

Melodic shapes and evolution; rhythmic patterns

thelonious monk epistrophy
Thelonious Monk, Epistrophy

c. 1948, recorded 1957-58. (From the CD Thelonious Monk with John Coltrane. A photograph of Thelonious Monk, with a stupid caption, appears on p. 23 of the textbook.)

This example demonstrates

repetition at three levels

“statement, departure, return” at multiple levels

contour

sequence

slide15
FORM

The simplest form is unvaried repetition: AAAA . . .

A complete lack of repetition creates a complex form:

ABCDEFGHI . . .

But many forms depend on the sense of STATEMENT, DEPARTURE and RETURN:

ABA

song forms
Song Forms

Verse-refrain (ABABAB) . . . - Ex. The Jovial Tradesmen

AABA – very standard. Actually, it is ababCab;verse-refrain-verse-refrain-bridge-verse-refrain(“refrain” is also known as “chorus”).The statement-departure-return (or statement-contrast) structureworks at two different levels, abab and the larger AABA.

The text varies (usually) only on the verse: text: v1 – r – v2 – r – bridge – v3 – r

music: a – b – a – b – bridge – a – b

earth wind fire fantasy 1977
Earth, Wind & Fire, Fantasy (1977)

Maurice White, Eddie del Barrio & Verdine White

Every man has a place, in his heart there\'s a space,

and the world can\'t erase his fantasies

Take a ride in the sky, on our ship fantasii

all your dreams will come true, right away

And we will live together, until the twelfth of never

our voices will ring forever, as one

Every thought is a dream, rushing by in a stream,

bringing life to our kingdom of doing

Take a ride in the sky, on our ship fantasii

all your dreams will come true, miles away

Our voices will ring together until the twelfth of never,

we all, will live forever, as one

earth wind fire fantasy 197718
Earth, Wind & Fire, Fantasy (1977)

Come to see, victory, in the land called fantasy

loving life, a new decree,

bring your mind to everlasting liberty

Come to see, victory in a land called fantasy,

loving life, for you and me, to behold, to your soul is ecstasy

You will find, other kind, that has been in search for you,

many lives has brought you to

recognize it\'s your life, now in review

and as you stay for the play, fantasy, has in store for you,

a glowing light will see you through

It\'s your day, shining day, all your dreams come true

As you glide, in your stride with the wind, as you fly away

give a smile, from your lips, and say

I am free, yes I\'m free, now I\'m on my way

Come to see, victory in a land called fantasy,

loving life, . . . now in review

musical form so what
MUSICAL FORM: So what?

Expectations confirmed:

SATISFACTION!

(clichéd, boring, too predictable)

Expectations denied:

EXPRESSION!

(meaningless, wrong, incompetent)

other forms
Other Forms

We will encounter many types of forms such as:

Variation – A A’A’’A’’’ . . . Binary – AABB Rondo – ABACA Sonata – intro-A-B-A-B-dev-A-B’-coda

and an entire zoo of forms perhaps not entirely worth cataloging.

contrast in music
CONTRAST IN MUSIC

Mozart -- first movement from Symphony No. 35 in D Major, K. 385, "Haffner" LOW/HIGH (contrast in register)

LONG/SHORT

Contrast in timbre (sound color):

Bach, Brandenburg Concerto No. 2

(also contrast in dynamics – loud and soft)

balance
BALANCE

BALANCE

asymmetry

symmetry

E Q U I L I B R I U M

assymetical balance in music
Assymetical balancein music?

A concerto sets a soloist or small group of soloists “against” an orchestra

empha s is
EMPHASIS

accent

economy

limitation of a composition to a few essential elements; usually a voluntary constraint that is part of the creative process

SPECIFIC TO AN INDIVIDUAL WORK, NOT THE GENRE , TYPE OR MEDIUM

ECONOMY

Examples in music: deriving everything from a single theme (musical idea), limiting the number of pitches, type of instrument, etc.

Steve Reich, Music for Pieces of Wood, Clapping Music, or other pieces

DC Meckler, Bliss (1999)

Morton Feldman, Three Voices (1982)

proportion
PROPORTION

PROPORTION

PROPORTION

proportion in music
Proportion in music

A matter of time, usually lots of time.

Example: 3 Beethoven string quartets (Op 59, 1, 2 & 3). Each in 4 movements.

No. 1 – BIG 1st mvt

No. 2 – nervous 1st mvt, BIG 2nd mvt

No. 3 – BIG finale (4th mvt)

scale
SCALE

SCALE - the size of a work compared to the environment: miniature, human, monumental. The term can also apply to musical works, although it has an entirely different meaning than “musical scale.” (“A symphony is a large-scale musical work when compared to a song.”)

claes oldenburg knife ship i 1985
Claes Oldenburg, Knife Ship I, 1985

Vinyl-covered wood, steel, and aluminum with motors, dimensions variable, maximum height 31 feet 8 inches x 40 feet 5 inches x 31 feet 6 inches.

miniature
Miniature

Leaf from Futuh al-Haramain (Description of the Two Holy Cities of Mecca and Medina), mid-16th century; Ottoman, 8x5 in.

some examples of time scales in music
Some examples of time scales in music

Less than a minute - Miniatures – Chopin, Webern, Schoenberg

Pop songs – 3-6 minutes

Early symphonies – 25-35 minutes

Later symphonies – 45 min - 1 hr

Longest – Mahler – 1 ½ hrs

Short opera – 2 hours

Average opera – 3-4 hours (including intermissions)

Long opera – 5 hours

Longest traditional opera – Wagner’s RING – 18 hours

principles of design35

Some

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN

REPETITION VARIATIONCONTRAST

BALANCE – symmetry/asymmetry

EMPHASIS - accent

ECONOMY

PROPORTION

SCALE

monk epistrophy repetition at three levels
Monk, Epistrophyrepetition at three levels

a a b b a\'a\'b\'b\' a\'a\'b\'b\' a a b b c c\' c\'\' d d\' a\'a\'b\'b\'

(The little mark indicates some degree of variation.)

Three levels of repetition:

small-scale (motific) – aa

phrase level – a a b b compared to a\'a\'b\'b\'

sectional – the return of the a\'a\'b\'b\' after the bridge (c c\' c\'\' d d\')

monk epistrophy statement departure return
Monk, Epistrophy“statement, departure, return”

– STATEMENT: a a b b

DEPARTURE: a\'a\'b\'b\' a\'a\'b\'b\'

RETURN: a a b b

– STATEMENT: a a b b a\'a\'b\'b\' a\'a\'b\'b\' a a b b

DEPARTURE: c c\' c\'\' d d\'

RETURN: a\'a\'b\'b\'

(complete structure: AA’A’ABA’)

– STATEMENT: AA’A’ABA’

DEPARTURE: solos –

RETURN: AA’A’ABA’ A [ending]

monk epistrophy contour and sequence
Monk, Epistrophycontour and sequence

contour – melodic analog of shape in art

– a rises

– b rises and falls

sequence – repeating a pattern up or down a scale step or series of steps

– d d’

slide39

Louis Andriessen, De Staat, (The State, 1973-1976)

Contrast in timbre (sound color):

DOUBLE REEDS/BRASS/VOICES+PIANO

(double reeds = woodwind instruments: oboe, English horn, bassoon)

variation the alliance between repetition and surprise
VARIATION:the alliance between repetition and surprise

The extensive poem, moreover, satisfies another two-fold requirement, one that is closely related to the rule of variety within unity: repetition and surprise. Repetition is a cardinal principal in poetry. Meter and its accents, rhyme, the epithets in Homer and other poets, phrases and incidents that recur like musical motifs and serve as signs to emphasize continuity. At the other extreme are breaks, changes, inventions - in a word, the unexpected. What we call development is merely the alliance between repetition and surprise, recurrence and invention, continuity and interruption.

Octavio Paz, “Telling and Singing” in The Other Voice

contrast in music41
CONTRAST IN MUSIC

Mozart -- first movement from Symphony No. 35 in D Major, K. 385, "Haffner" LOW/HIGH (contrast in register)

LONG/SHORT

Contrast in timbre (sound color):

Bach, Brandenburg Concerto No. 2

(also contrast in dynamics – loud and soft)

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