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Computer Architecture History of Computing. Lynn Choi Dept. of Computer and Electronics Engineering. History of Computing. Abacus: appeared around 24 0 0 BC Developed in Babylonia Imported to China and improved substantially around 1200’s BC

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Computer Architecture History of Computing

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Computer ArchitectureHistory of Computing

Lynn Choi

Dept. of Computer and Electronics Engineering


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History of Computing

  • Abacus: appeared around 2400 BC

    • Developed in Babylonia

    • Imported to China and improved substantially around 1200’s BC

    • Modern abacus is an improved variety from Japan after the World War II

  • Pascal’s Arithmetic Machine (Pascaline)

    • French mathematician, physicist, theologian, philosopher

    • The first mechanical calculator

    • Developed in 1642 (only at 19 years old)

      • only add/subtract

      • 10 toothed wheels

  • Leibniz’s Calculator

    • Developed in 1673based on Pascal’s machine

    • Can do add/subtract/multiply/divide


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History of Computing

  • Analytic Engine

    • The first autonomic computing machine

    • Designed by Charles Babbage in 1833

    • Like today’s computer, it has central processing unit, memory storage, software instructions, punch card inputs, and printed outputs

      • 50 decimal digit calculations

      • Memory of 1000 digits

    • Operated by steam power

    • Some people refer Babbage “the Father of Computing”

  • Ada: the first programmer using the Analytic Engine

    • Subroutines, loops, conditional jumps


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History of Computing

  • Turing Machine

    • A mathematical computing model proposed by Alan M. Turing in 1936

      • Abstract symbol manipulating device that can simulate the logic of any computer

      • Theoretical background to modern computers

      • ACM Turing Award – the Novel prize in Computer Science

    • Contribute to the following concepts

      • Provide theoretical background to modern general-purpose computers

      • Stored program concept

      • High-level programming language concept

      • Recursive function concept

      • Use of binary codes

    • Consists of infinite linear tape, read/write head, control unit

      • TM=(si, dj, dk, R or L or N, sl)

      • Mapping table gives state transition functions, i.e. given a state and a symbol, erase symbol/rewrite symbol, move R/W head to left or right, and go to a new state


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ENIAC

  • ENIAC

    • ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer)

    • 1st general-purpose electronic computer

    • Designed by John Mauchly and John Presper Eckert at Upenn

    • Funded by US BRL (Ballistic Research Lab) to develop range and trajectory tables for new weapons

      • Until then, BRL employeemore than 200 people with desktop calculators to solve the necessary ballistics equations

    • The proposal accepted in 1943, the machine completed in 1946, and dismantled in 1955

      • Used for H-bomb research

    • Characteristics

      • 30 tons, 15000 square feet, 18000 vacuum tubes, 140 KW power dissipation

      • Decimal machine

        • 20 accumulators each holding 10-digit decimal number

        • Each digit is represented by a ring of 10 vacuum tubes

      • Manually programmed by setting switches and plugging/unplugging cables

      • 5,000 additions per second



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The Von Neumann Machine - IAS

  • IAS

    • By von Neumann at the Princeton Institute for Advanced Studies

      • Von Neumann was a consultant on the ENIAC project

    • Stored program concept

      • The ability to store its instructions in its internal memory and process them in its arithmetic unit, so that in the course of a computation they may be not just executed but also modified at electronic speeds

      • Included in the proposal for EDVAC in 1945

    • Started in 1946and completed in 1952

    • All modern computer systems are called Von Neumann machines

      • The same structure and the same functions

        • Processor, memory, inputs, and outputs

        • Stored program concept, PC, MAR

    • 1000 x 40 bit words

      • Binary number

      • 2 x 20 bit instructions




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Von Neumann - Biography

Born 28 December 1903, Budapest, Hungary; Died 8 February 1957, Washington DC; Brilliant mathematician, synthesizer, and promoter of the stored program concept, whose logical design of the IAS became the prototype of most of its successors - the von Neumann Architecture.

Von Neumann was a child prodigy, born into a banking family is Budapest, Hungary. When only six years old he could divide eight-digit numbers in his head. He received his early education in Budapest, under the tutelage of M. Fekete, with whom he published his first paper at the age of 18. Entering the University of Budapest in 1921, he studied Chemistry, moving his base of studies to both Berlin and Zurich before receiving his diploma in 1925 in Chemical Engineering. He returned to his first love of mathematics in completing his doctoral degree in 1928. he quickly gained a reputation in set theory, algebra, and quantum mechanics. At a time of political unrest in central Europe, he was invited to visit Princeton Universityin 1930, and when the Institute for Advanced Studies was founded there in 1933, he was appointed to be one of the original six Professors of Mathematics, a position which he retained for the remainder of his life. At the instigation and sponsorship of Oskar Morganstern, von Neumann and Kurt Gödel became US citizens in time for their clearance for wartime work. There is an anecdote which tells of Morganstern driving them to their immigration interview, after having learned about the US Constitution and the history of the country. On the drive there Morganstern asked them if they had any questions which he could answer. Gödel replied that he had no questions but he had found some logical inconsistencies in the Constitution that he wanted to ask the Immigration officers about. Morganstern strongly recommended that he not ask questions, just answer them!

During 1936 through 1938 Alan Turing was a graduate student in the Department of Mathematics at Princeton and did his dissertation under Alonzo Church. Von Neumann invited Turing to stay on at the Institute as his assistant but he preferred to return to Cambridge; a year later Turing was involved in war work at Bletchley Park. This visit occurred shortly after Turing's publication of his 1934 paper "On Computable Numbers with an Application to the Entscheidungs-problem" which involved the concepts of logical design and the universal machine. It must be concluded that von Neumann knew of Turing's ideas, though whether he applied them to the design of the IAS Machine ten years later is questionable. [5]

  • http://ei.cs.vt.edu/~history /VonNeumann.html




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IAS Instruction Set

  • 21 Instructions

    • Data transfer: move data between memory and ALU registers

    • Arithmetic: +, -, *, /, left shift, right shift

    • Branch: unconditional jump, conditional jump

    • Address modify (self-modifying code): Permit addresses to be computed in the ALU and then inserted into instructions stored in memory.

  • Registers

    • Memory Buffer Register (MBR)

      • Hold the word fetched or to be stored in memory

    • Memory Address Register (MAR)

      • Hold the address of memory to be read or written

    • Instruction Register (IR)

      • Hold the 8-bit opcode

    • Instruction Buffer Register (IBR)

      • Hold the right hand instruction from a word in memory

    • Program Counter (PC)

      • Hold the address of the next instruction-pair to be fetched


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Commercial Computers in 1950’s

  • Sperry-Rand Corporation

    • Eckert & Mauchly Computer Corporation was founded in 1947

    • Merged with Sperry-Rand Corporation

    • UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) I

      • Used for (population) census in 1950

    • UNIVAC II

      • Higher performance, larger memory, upward compatibility

        • Provides backward compatibility from UNIVAC and secure customer base

  • IBM

    • Start as an equipment company for punch card

    • IBM 701, 1953

      • The first commercial stored program computer

      • Used for scientific application

    • IBM 702, 1955

      • Business applications


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Computer Generations

  • 1st generation computers

    • Vacuum tube, 1946-1957, 40K operations/sec

  • 2nd generation computers

    • Transistor, 1958-1964, 200 K operations/sec

  • 3rd generation computers

    • SSI, MSI, 1965-1971, 1 M operations/sec

  • 4th generation computers

    • LSI, 1972-1977, 10 M operations/sec

  • 5th generation computers

    • VLSI, 1978 to date, 100 M operations/sec


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The 2nd Generation Computers

  • Transistors invented

    • Replaced vacuum tubes

    • Smaller, cheaper, less heat dissipation

    • Invented by William Shockley et al. in 1947 at Bell Labs

  • IBM 7094 (7000 series) – 1962

    • Data channel

      • Independent IO Processor

        • IOP has its own instruction set

      • IOP independently processes input and output once initiated by CPU

  • PDP-1 - 1957

    • DEC was founded in 1957

    • Begins minicomputer era


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The 3rd Generation Computers

  • IC (Integrated Circuit) – semiconductors Moore’s law – Intel’s co-founder

    • “The number of transistors that could be put on a single chip is doubled every 18 months.”, 1965

      • Memory capacity quadruples every 3 year

      • The number of transistors and the performance of a microprocessor is quadrupled every 3 year

  • IBM System/360, 1964

    • Incompatible with 700/7000 series, but great success

    • Family of models (model 30, 40, 50, 65, 75)

      • The same instruction set, same OS

      • Increasing speed, IO ports, memory size

  • DEC PDP-8, 1964

    • $16,000, small enough to put on a lab bench

    • 50,000 units sold



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The 4th and 5th Generation Computers

  • Semiconductor memory

    • Replaces magnetic core memory

      • Non-destructive, much faster than core

    • 1970, Developed by Fairchild, 256 bits of memory

    • Since 1974,cost per bit dropped lower than core memory

    • 12 generations - 256, 1K, 4K, 16K, 64K, 256K, 1M, 4M, 16M, 64M, 256M, 1G

  • Microprocessor

    • 1971, Intel developed the first 4 bit microprocessor 4004

    • 1972, 8008 (8-bit)

    • 1974, 8080 (the first general-purpose microprocessor)

    • 1978, 8086 (16-bit)

    • 1982, 80286 (20 bit address, 16MB memory)

    • 1985, 80386 (32-bit)

    • 1989, 80486 the first pipelined processor, integrated FPU

    • 1993, Pentium (superscalar)

    • 1995, Pentium Pro (OOO, branch prediction)

    • 2000, Pentium 4 (superpipelining), Itanium (64-bit, VLIW)


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The 4th and 5th Generation Computers

  • PC era begins

    • 1976, Steve Jobs starts Apple Computer (8-bit)

    • 1981, IBM developed 16 bit IBM PC

      • Microsoft developed MS DOS

    • 1984, Apple announces Macintosh

    • 1992, Microsoft announces MS Windows 3.1

    • 1994, Netscape announced

The first Apple Computer

Apple Mac

IBM PC


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RISC and Power PC

  • 1975, IBM 801 minicomputer

    • The first RISC processor

    • RISC movement begins together with Berkeley RISC I processor project

  • 1986, RT PC

    • The first commercial product that applied the concept of IBM 801

  • 1990, IBM RISC/6000

    • Started IBM Power architecture

  • Power PC

    • Superscalar RISC processor developed jointly by IBM, Motorola, and Apple in 1991

    • 1993 – 601

    • 1994 – 603 (low-end), 604 (desktop)

    • 1995 – 620 (64-bit processor for high-end servers)

    • 1997 – G3 (2-levels of on-chip cache)

    • 1999 – G4 (single-chip multiprocessors)

    • 2003 – G5

    • 2004, Motorola exited chip manufacturing business and spin off Freescale

    • 2004, IBM starts to target the game industry for the market of their PowerPC processors such as Nintendo Wii, Sony Playstation III, and Microsoft Xbox 360

    • 2005, Apple announced they will no longer use PowerPC processors for their PCs




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Homework I

  • Read Chapter I

  • Exercise 1.1 – 1.28

  • Exercise 1.29 – 1.45

  • Exercise 1.52

  • Due date: 3/12 (Wed)


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