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Aug. 14, 2007 City College of San Francisco. Neuroscience of Learning for Educational Organizations. Ken Wesson Educational Consultant: Neuroscience San Jose, CA USA (408) 323-1498 [email protected] I hope I die during the speech on “All-faculty In-service Day,”.

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slide1

Aug. 14, 2007

City College of San Francisco

Neuroscience of Learning

for

Educational Organizations

Ken WessonEducational Consultant: NeuroscienceSan Jose, CA

USA(408) [email protected]

slide2

I hope I die during the speech on “All-faculty In-service Day,”

because the transition would be

so subtle.

slide4

...Own a Million-dollar Racehorse?

If you did, would you…

  • Keep him up until the wee hours of the morning?
  • Allow him to skip 90% his training rituals on a regular basis?
  • Let him maintain a poor non-nutritious diet? (Pepsi and potato chips?)
  • Endorse an almost completely sedentary lifestyle?
  • Deem it acceptable for him to play video games for 3-4 hours a day?
  • Experiment on him with habit-forming and destructive drugs and/or hallucinogens? Sometimes combining them with alcohol?
  • Let him “hang out” with other un-ambitious horses listening to rock and rap music for most of the day?
slide5

...Own a Million-dollar Racehorse?

If you did, would you…

• Allow him to watch 9,000 hours of TV each year, complete with 45,000 gratuitous horse murders and expect him to be well- adjusted with a healthy self concept, and to see the world as a supportive, friendly place to grow, develop and a place where he will maximize his full potential?

If you did, what would he be worth to you or to himself?

Our students have multi-billion dollar brains! You should never allow their brains to be treated in ways far worse than you would ever allow a horse to be treated.

slide6

Only Gray MatterMatters in Neuroscience

  • Students come in a variety of colors, but all brains are basically gray. It is only the gray matter that truly matters when it comes to learning.
  • Boosting achievement and maximizing human potential hinges on developing a respectable knowledge base of “how the brain works.”
  • Brain-considerate approaches do not favor one culture or another nor one gender over the other. Instead, we examine the structural, functional and developmental characteristics of all human brains

as they change over time.

slide7

“How does the human brain work?”

  • What are the most effective strategies for reaching learners (young or old)?
  • How is information best taught?
  • Why do some students “get it” quickly, while others struggle? They understand it quite well later, but why are some learners slower (a “delayed learning reaction”?
  • How is content more readily recalled?
  • What are ideal environmental conditions for learning?
  • What can you do to make a significant difference in learning outcomes?
slide8

The Science of Learning

Schools of Education serving K-12 Teachers (Pedagogy)

∙ The history of education

∙ The philosophy of education

∙ The psychology of education

→ Go into the classroom and teach

∙ The history of aviation

∙ The philosophy of aviation

∙ The psychology of aviation

→ Enter the cockpit and fly!

Colleges and universities (Andragogy)

“You’ve taken enough classes and seen enough models of teaching, so you must be ready to teach.”

At neither level is there any mandate that educators must know how the brain “works”” or understand how learning is best orchestrated.

slide9

Change? Complacency is Fatal

Every morning in Africa, the gazelle wakes up. It knows it must run faster than the fastest lion or it will be killed.

Every morning the lion wakes up. It knows it must outrun the slowest gazelle or it will starve to death.

It doesn\'t matter whether you are a lion or a gazelle, when the sun comes up, you’d better start running.

--African proverb

slide10

The illiterates of the future are not those who cannot read or write, but those who cannot learn, un-learn, and re-learn.--Alvin Toffler

slide11

Our Focus…

  • The current status of research in the cognitive neurosciences (the psychological, biological, and emotional aspects of learning )
  • Brain physiology
  • Inquiry-learning and memory (factors that facilitate or inhibit L’ and M’)
  • The five features of BCL that offer practical strategies to apply these principles from brain science to the classroom
slide12

Brain-considerate Learning: “PERC3S”

  • There are five BC elements that the human brain seeks while processing incoming stimuli for personal “meaning,” which makes the information “memorable” and worth remembering.
    • Patterns
    • Emotions
    • Relevance
    • Context, Content, and Cognitively-appropriate
    • Sense-making

Patterns, emotions, relevance, context, content and sense-making are critical factors in driving (1) attention, (2) motivation, (3) learning, (4) memory formation, and (5) recall. Collectively, these factors serve as the primary criteria for long-term memory storage.to hot

slide13

Brain-based Research: Cognitive Neuroscience

We’ve learned more about the human brain in thepast 5 yearsthan in our previous 200 years.

Over90%of the neuroscientists who ever lived are stillalivetoday! (A longevity-sponsoring career?)

TwentyNobel prizeshave been awarded to neuroscientists in the past 25 years.

We are no further than the Wright brotherswell before their first flight at Kitty Hawk. More akin to Copernicus -- the theory of a heliocentric solar system was worthy of re-consideration.

slide14

Abandoning

our

19th and 20th-Century Models

slide15

You are here

Entrance

Entrance

slide16

The Very Narrow Profile

  • Schools were places where…
  • Curriculum designed based on a “one size fits all” (assembly-line) model
  • All learning was “synchronous”
  • Knowledge acquisition was “teacher/classroom-driven”
  • Personal interests, inquiries and gratification were “delayed”
  • “www.” = Contemporary impatience requires immediate information and access to knowledge Wherever, Whatever and Whenever.
slide17

The Science of Learning

  • Content and Curriculum
  • Must be readily available (research to purchasing)
  • Accessible on demand through a broad range of mobile and wireless personal devices (digitized instant stimulation, communication and gratification)
  • The new “Three Rs of Media” = Realistic, Relevant and Rich in quality and interactive/personalized by design (“my-ification”)
  • Volume and dimension are expanding exponentially. The “facts” continue to change ( and  content memory)
  • Content is no longer controlled by, orchestrated by or exclusively restricted to professor access.
slide18

Fall of ‘93, there were approximately 600 web sites total.

  • Today, over 500K on the human brain alone.
  • We can witness a solar eclipse in Central Asia, while sitting in North America. How can this be done?
  • By web-casting special scientific events such as eclipses, expeditions to South American rain forests, lush tropical ecosystems, and journeys to the ocean’s floor.
  • We are breaking the traditional academic umbilical cord that previously attached us permanently to the “professor-at-the- podium” learning model.
  • Videos, DVDs, computers, simulated dissections, Internet tele- communications projects, handheld graphing calculators, high-definition TVs, electron microscopes, which are merely tools added to our ever-expanding tool chest and given us unprecedented new ways for the human brain to learn and experience.
slide19

The Knowledge Explosion

“The sum total of humankind’s knowledge doubled between 1750 and 1900. It doubled again between 1900 and 1950, again from 1950 to 1960, again from 1960 to 1965. It’s been estimated that the sum total of humankind’s knowledge has doubled at least every five years since then.

And by the year 2000, ninety-seven percent of what is known at that time will have been discovered or invented since those of us in this room were born.

It’s been further projected that by the year 2020, knowledge or information will double every 73 days.”

Dr. James Appleberry - President, American Association of State Colleges and Universities

slide20

Expanding the Traditional Model of

Thinking and Learning

Does the name “Pavlov” ring a bell?

Stimulus Response

S R

Teaching Learning

Thinking and learning are neurobiological processes that take place inside the brain, just as digestion is another biological event that takes place in the pancreas and the stomach.

slide22

Factors Influencing Learning and Behavior

In addition to desires, tendencies, appetites, instincts, inclinations…

Genetics +Epigenetics and early nutrition

+Pre-natal care +Age

+Early development (0-3) +Emotions/emotional state

+Parenting +Gender

+Physical history +Perception/expectations

+Neuro-physiology +Memory

+Prior learning (situated L’) +Diet

+Prior experiences +Self-esteem

+Need state +Disability

+Strengths +Neural circuitry/plasticity*

+Formal Education +Stress factors

Learning/Behavior

* Neural plasticity: The flexible nature of the brain to modify structures, alter its functioning and re-route neural circuitry as a response to new stimuli and ongoing learning experiences.

slide23

Time Magazine

“How to Build a Student for the 21st Century”

December 18, 2006

  • Many education analysts believe that we must seek a better balance between core knowledge and the“portable skills”-- critical thinking, making connections between ideas and learning how to learn -- the U.S. curriculum needs to become more like that of Singapore, Korea, Belgium and Sweden, whose students outperform American students on TIMSS (math/sci. exams.)
  • Classes in these countriesfocus on key conceptsthat aretaught in depthandin careful sequence,as opposed the succession of forgettable details so often served in U.S. classrooms. Textbooks and tests support this approach.
  • “Countries from Germany to Singapore haveextremely small textbooks that focus on the most powerful and generative ideas.”-- Roy Pea, Co-director of the Stanford Center for Innovations in Learning.
slide24

The longer students stay in the current system the worse they do. According to the 1995 Third International Mathematics and Science Study, U.S. fourth graders ranked second. By twelfth grade, they fell to 16th, behind nearly every industrialized rival and ahead of only Cyprus and South Africa.

Percentage of Twelfth Graders Proficient in Science

Source: www.ed.gov/nclb/methods/science/science.html

slide25

91% of American educators use textbooks, reading materials, and the lecture approach nearly 95% of the time.

-- Shymansky, Yore, and Good

slide26

The Montillation of Traxoline(attributed to Judy Lanier) It is very important that you learn about traxoline. Traxoline is a new form of zionter. It is montilled in Ceristanna. The Ceristannians gristerlate large amounts of fevon and then brachter it to quasel traxoline. Traxoline may well be one of our most lukized snezlaus in the future because of our zionter lescelidge.

Directions: Answer the following questions in complete sentences. 1. What is traxoline? 2. Where is traxoline montilled? 3. How is traxoline quaselled? 4. Why is it important to know about traxoline?

slide27

∙ Marie Curie did her research at theSore Buns Institutein France.∙ The composer Handel was half German, half Italian, and half English.He was very large.∙I’m really glad we read Harper Lee’s masterpieceTequilla Mockingbird.∙Miguel Cervates wrote“Donkey Hotey”.∙ Julius Caesar\'s dying words were,“Tee hee, Brutus”.∙ The Greek goddess of love was Aphrodite. Aphrodite lives on today as a kind of haircut-- the Aphro.

slide28

Instead of Lectures,

  • More Neural Networks are Created by
  • Physical involvement
  • Emotional engagement
  • Time allowed for internal dialogue
  • Interactive discourse
  • A non-threatening environment open to idea exchanges
  • Opportunities for Reflection
  • Conversations encouraging revisions in thinking
slide29

The Homunculus

Motor cortex

Sensory Cortex

The distribution of sensory receptors is unevenly concentrated on the parts of the body that are most involved in tactile perception. This is why hands-on learning is so powerful. For decades, these receptor fields were thought to be fixed and unchanging. However, cortical representations and sensory projections are rapidly reorganized following injury or surgical alteration. Wherever the hands go, that is where the brain will focus its attention.

slide30

Movement

  • Movement (kinesthetic learning) signals the liver to produce more glucose.
  • Glucose is especially important as the primary energy source utilized by functional brain cells.
  • Standing increases cerebral blood flow by 5%.
  • Movement increases cerebral blood flow by 5 to 15%.
slide31

You are here

  • Schools across the nation are responding to No Child Left Behind by tripling the amount of time spent teaching R’ and mathematics.
  • Center on Education Policy found that middle schools have left a 55-minute period daily, during which learning for all other subjects must occur.
  • The majority of low-performing schools have restricted the academic menu to math, reading and physical education. They have barred instruction in any other subject area. (Some students are guaranteed to be left behind in science. Content area repetition, drill, practice and testing consume the entire school day.)
slide32

"Not everything that can be counted, counts; and, not everything that counts,can be counted."

--Albert Einstein

slide33

The New York Times

NCLB to Require Proof of Learning at College

Published: February 26, 2006

In response,the chairman of the Bush administration\'s Commission on the Future of Higher Education recently suggested that standardized testsbe used to determine how much college students are actually learning. The higher education community is up in arms about the suggestion, arguing that what colleges teach cannot be fully tested and that standardized tests would only dumb down an excellent education system. Those are important arguments, but they will not end the controversy, as long as business leaders keep complaining about the suspect quality of many college graduates from both public and elite colleges. Indeed, more than 40 states have now created accountability systems aimed at having colleges prove that their students are actually learning.

Colleges and universities should join in the hunt for acceptable ways to measure student progress, rather than simply fighting the whole idea from the sidelines. Unless the higher education community wakes up to this problem — and resolves to do a better job — the movement aimed at regulating colleges and forcing them to demonstrate that students are actually learning will only keep growing.

slide34

…more High-stakes Testing?

Kenneth Wesson, a founding member of the Association of Black Psychologists, once said, brilliantly,

“Let’s be honest. If inner-city children consistently outscored children from wealthy suburban homes on standardized tests, is anyone naïve enough to believe that we would still insist on using these tests as indicators of success?”

“The Big Picture”

by Dennis Littky

slide35

Regardless of Age, All Brains Need

Water

Exercise

Sleep

Stress Reduction

Oxygen

Nutrition

Positive Attitude

(healthy brain)

slide36

Nutrition and Brain Development

  • During prenatal brain development, and later during the formative years, under-nutrition and other factors linked to poverty can slow brain development and permanently impact cognitive processing.
  • The longer a child\'s nutritional, emotional and educational needs go unmet,↑likelihood of brain impairment.
  • Iron deficiency anemia, (25% of poor children) is associated with impaired brain development.)
  • Iron repletion therapy can reduce some of the effects of anemia on learning, attention and memory.
  • Hungry children perform below their non-hungry low income peers on standardized test scores.
slide37

Achievement Gap? Poorer Families, Lower Scores

A recent study shows that kindergartners\' reading and math test scores are directly linked to the students\' socioeconomic levels.

SOURCE: Economic Policy Institute

Vol. 22, Issue 5, Page 10

Published: October 2, 2002

slide39

Development is Never Guaranteed

No land = No frog

During this sensitive period, tadpoles slow down the

process of metamorphosis if there are no signs of

nearby land. Development is environmentally-dependent.

slide40

Epigenetics

  • New research is changing the entire field of genetics with a sub-discipline -- “epigenetics”
  • There is a breed of fat yellow mice that were specifically bred to carry a gene called agouti,which gives these mice a characteristic pale yellow coat and a tendency towards obesity. Male agouti + female agouti = little fat yellow agouti pups.
  • Duke University: Agouti mice separated into two groups:
  • 1. Control group
  • 2. Pregnant group.
  • They fed the control group a normal diet and the fat yellow rats produced fat yellow offspring.
slide41

Epigenetics

  • The experimental group mated, but the expectant mothers were forgiven a compound of prenatal vitamins including folic acid, betaine, and choline and vitamin B12.
  • Genetically shocking results: Fat yellow (agouti) males and females suddenly were producing thin brown babies.
  • The vitamin supplements flicked the agouti gene into the “off” position. When the baby mice were born, their DNA still contained the dominant agouti gene, just as it did with other fat yellow pups, only the gene wasn\'t expressed, because the chemicals and attached to the gene and suppressed its genetic instructions (the blueprints).
slide42

DestructiveErrors

  • The two greatest and most destructive errors that we make in education, both are assumptions that are

(a) erroneous

(b) well-intentioned

(c) widely-accepted

(d) engrained in practices at all institutional levels

and in all facets of organizations.

  • 1.  With enough training,anyone can achieve excellence (or at least become highly competent) at almostanything.
  • 2.  In every individual, the greatest room forgrowthand improvement will be in his or her area(s) of greatestweakness(es).
  • Neurologically under-invested and under-developed.
slide43

Optimal window

Secondary Window

Extent of Future Developmental Possibilities

Vision

0 – 6 months

6 – 24 months

The lack of visual stimuli entering the eyes will eventually cause permanent blindness in a perfectly healthy eye. (Primary visual cortex must process incoming visual information.)

Motor develop-ment

0 – 24 months

2 – 4 years

Capabilities rapidly decrease with advancing age. (Functionality of the cerebellum/motor cortex for balance/coordination can be lost).

Auditory develop-ment

0 – 6 months

6 – 18 months

Severe learning and language problems will result from CAPDs based on the lack of stimuli processed by the auditory cortex. Problems occur from the absence of any sounds to handle and/or distinguish.

Language skills

0 – 24 months

2 – 5 years

With the onset of puberty, “new language” mastery begins a sharp and typically uninterrupted decline.

Reading skills

4 – 5 years old (girls)

6 – 8 years (boys)

7 – 12 years old (puberty)

Learning to process symbolic language can occur throughout one’s lifetime. It becomes more difficult (1) with time, and (2) if there are only modest opportunities for auditory processing of the rich usages and varieties of ideas. Early drawing provides a foundation for languaging.

Emotional develop-ment

0 – 24 months

2 – 4 years

Screening events through one’s emotional filter becomes difficult; personal relationships are characterized by weak attachments that are easily terminated. (Similar to limbectomized mammals)

A second language

0 – 5 years old

7 – 12 years old

Learning a second language after puberty is far more challenging than language learning at any other prepubescent period. The “second” language will almost invariably be accompanied by an accent.

Musical abilities

0 – 6 years old

7 – 12 years old

Research suggests that early musical exposure enhances the development of spatial and mathematical skills. Beyond puberty, learning a musical instrument (particularly learning to read musical notation) is frequently as complicated as learning a new oral language.

slide44

Brain-considerate Classrooms:

Strategies for Deep and

Long-lasting Connections

slide45

Brain-considerate Learning: “PERC3S”

  • There are five BC elements that the human brain seeks while processing incoming stimuli for personal “meaning,” which makes the information “memorable” and worth remembering.
    • Patterns
    • Emotions
    • Relevance
    • Context, Content, and Cognitively-appropriate
    • Sense-making

Patterns, emotions, relevance, context, content and sense-making are critical factors in driving (1) attention, (2) motivation, (3) learning, (4) memory formation, and (5) recall. Collectively, these factors serve as the primary criteria for long-term memory storage.to hot

slide46

Checklist for Brain-considerate Teaching

  • Patterns – Seeing and making organized connections
  • Emotions – Positive and effective use of human emotions; When the
  • brain enthusiastically presses the “Save” button (“That’s worth remembering!”); “Hope” – when students believe that success is possible/probable, they will try harder/work with rather than against the teacher to reach the pre-established relevant learning goals.
  • Relevance – Creating cognitive bridges between stored personal memories and a present event; Connecting the knownwith the new; Making a personal connection, “What does this mean to me?”
  • Context, Content, and Cognitively-appropriate – Is the target information within a “frame” that is realistic to the learner? Is the information cognitively accessible? (“Zone of Proximal Dev.” vs. “Zone of Performance Deficit” or Potential Disaster”?)
  • Sense-making – The concept is understood; “I know what this is, how it works, how it is used, where it is, why it is important, when to apply it,” etc.
slide47

The Ten Worst Human Fears

(in the U.S.)

10. Dogs

9. Loneliness

8. Flying

7. Death

6. Sickness

5. Deep water/drowning

4. Financial problems

3. Insects and bugs

2. Heights

1. Speaking in front of a group

slide48

X + Y =

2X + 2Y =

3X + 4Y =

5X + 3Y =

4X + Y =

3Y + 4X =

slide51

5

4

3

2

80

1

76

0

0

1

2

3

4

5

Caps and Umbrellas

Number of

Umbrellas

(Y)

Number of Caps

(X)

Number of caps

slide53

5

140

164

188

212

236

260

4

112

136

160

184

208

232

3

84

108

132

156

180

204

2

56

80

104

128

152

176

1

28

52

76

100

124

148

0

0

24

48

72

96

120

0

1

2

3

4

5

Caps and Umbrellas

Number of

umbrellas

Number of caps

Number of caps

slide54

Caps and Umbrellas

X + Y = 52

2X + 2Y = 104

3X + 4Y = 184

5X + 3Y = 204

4X + Y = 124

3Y + 4X = 180

slide55

Science is constructed of facts, as a house is constructed of stones. But a collection of facts is no more “science” than a heap of stones is a house.

-- Jules-Henri Poincare

slide57

Verbs →

-algia (pain)

-centesis

(puncture)

-ectomy

(removal)

-tomy (incision)

-itis

(inflamation)

-plasty (surgical repair)

-megaly (enlargement)

-sclerosis

(hardening)

Nouns

Angio-

vessel

--

angiocen-tesis

angiotomy

angitis

angioplasty

angiomegaly

angiosclerosis

Craino-

skull

--

craniocen-tesis

hemispher-

rectomy

Crani-otomy

--

Cranio-plasty

--

craniosclerosis

Cardio-

heart

cardialgia

cardiocen-tesis

--

cardiotomy

--

Cardio-plasty

megalocardia

cardiosclerosis

Derma-

skin

--

dermacen- tesis

--

(incision)

dermatitis

Derma-plasty

--

sclerderma

Gastro

stomach

gastria

gastrocen-tesis

Gastrec-

tomy

--

gastritis

Gastro-plasty

gastromegaly

--

Neuro-

nerve

neuralgia

--

--

--

neuritis

--

--

multiple

sclerosis

Osteo-

bone

ostealgia

osteocen-tesis

--

osteotomy

osteoarthritis

ostoplasty

osteomegaly

osteosclerosis

Patterns: Understanding/Remembering Medical Terms

(All medical terms must make sense. Here is how they will.)

Brain-considerate Learning.com/K.Wesson

slide58

P.E.R.C3.S

  • Patterns
  • Emotions
  • Relevance
  • Context, Content, and Cognitively-appropriate
  • Sense-making
slide59

The Role of Emotions in Learning

  • Attention in the brain is activated by the emotions
  • Emotions  Attention  Arousal Perception Meaning(emotional filter)  Comprehension/ understanding Learning Short-term Memory (STM) (motivation, value personally important, rehearsal) LTMstorage.
  • Learning is anactive processthat involves (1)inputto the brain from thesenses,and (2) one’s ability to construct meaning from those sensory experiences.
  • People“learn how to learn”asthey learn.
  • Learning and memory are enhanced when the learning experience involves asocial aspect(portions of the meaning and recall are dependent upon experiencing the learning with another person/other people).
slide60

“Sawu bona.”

I see you, I am taking you in, and I like it.

“Sikhona”

I am here now (because of you).

A person is a person, because of other people.

slide61

"Tak for sidst"(Tock fah seest)

Thank you for the last time we were together.

The current status of any relationship is determined by the summation (the “+ and –” summative qualities of the last 5 encounters of those members composing the relationship.)

We emotionally “pick up where we left off,” whether we are consciously aware of that “emotional re-positioning” process or not. (“He makes me uncomfortable and I don’t know why.”)

slide62

You may be only one person in the world,but,You may also meanthe world to one person.

You give all children the most valuable commodity in the human experience -- “a hopeful future.”

slide63

Each year, new findings in cognitive psychology and neuroscience will be infused into teacher preparation, curriculum, instruction, student assessment, and the classroom environment. The works of Howard Gardner, Daniel Goleman, Kenneth Wesson, and others have already been influential in reshaping the independent school classroom, while programs like Mel Levine’s Schools Attuned are assisting educators in using neurodevelopmental content in their classrooms to create success at learning and to provide hope and satisfaction for all students.

-- NAIS Opinion Leaders Survey:

Forecasting Independent Education to 2025

slide64

Each year, the NSTA and Shell Oil Company identify 4-6 people, who they feel are making unique contributions to science research and education. Those individuals (the "Shell Science Scholars") are invited to address the members of the NSTA at their annual conference and are also honored at a special reception. Last year’s group included the Director of the Human Genome Project, the 1998 Nobel Prize winner for Physics, and Kenneth Wesson. The NSTA is the world\'s largest educational organization (scientists, researchers and science educators) with over 53,000 members dedicated to the improvement of science education

Wesson has been profiled in “Who\'s Who in Science and Engineering,” “Who’s Who in American Education,” and “Who\'s Who in America”

slide65

College of San Mateo

  • The Pebble:
  • CSM Psychology faculty member, Russell Stoker
slide66

Students may forget what you said,

but they will never forget

how you made them feel. -- Carl W. Buechner

slide68

Our Focus for the Future…

  • Psychological, social, biological, cultural, personal, physical, visual, kinesthetic, cognitive and emotional aspects to human learning
  • The five features of BCL that offer practical strategies to apply these principles from brain science to the science and mathematics classroom
  • The “Magic of Effective Teaching” with the brain in mind
slide69

The Science of Learning

Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful committed citizens can change the world.

Indeed, it’s the only thing that ever has.

--Margaret Mead, Anthropologist, 1901-1978

slide70

The Power of One

Rosa Parks

1913 - 2006

slide71

John Dewey

John Dewey

1859-1952

slide72

Charles Drew

1904-1950

slide73

Albert Einstein

(1879-1955)

slide74

An open frame waiting to be filled by

one of your CCSF students?

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