Brain imaging techniques
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Brain Imaging Techniques. CT Scan : Computerized Topograph Scan MRI : Magnetic Resonance Imaging f MRI : Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging PET Scan : Positron Emission Tomograph Scan EEG : Electroencephalogram. CT Scans: An x-ray of the brain.

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Brain Imaging Techniques

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Brain Imaging Techniques

  • CT Scan: Computerized Topograph Scan

  • MRI: Magnetic Resonance Imaging

  • fMRI: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

  • PET Scan: Positron Emission Tomograph Scan

  • EEG: Electroencephalogram


CT Scans: An x-ray of the brain.

A CT scan is essentially a computerized assembly of several x-ray images taken from a series of different angles. With a CT, the resolution is much better than conventional x-rays, and the detail that can be seen is much greater.


Tumor in Wernicke’s Area

  MRI is a noninvasive imaging technique that does not use x-rays.   The process involves passing a strong magnetic field through the head.  The magnetic field used is 30,000 + times that of the earth's magnetic field.  It's effect on the body, however, is harmless and temporary.  The MRI scanner can detect radiation from certain molecules, which are present in different concentrations in different tissues. 


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PET measures the emission of positrons from the brain after a small amount of radioactive isotopes, or tracers,  have been injected into the blood stream.  A common example is a glucose-relative with embedded fluor-18.   With this molecule, the activity of different regions of the brain can be measured.  The result is a three-dimentional map with the brain activity represented by colors.


Dopamine

P

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Normal Brain ADHD Brain

After Implant of Dopamine-secreting Tissue

Brain Development in First Year of Life


EEG of Mouse with

Epileptic Seizure

EEG Cap

Alert

Deep Sleep


The Evolution of the Brain


  • It relays to the cerebral cortex information received from diverse brain regions. Sort of a requisite 'last pit stop' for information going to cortex.

  • Axons from every sensory system (except olfaction) synapse here as the last relay site before the information reaches the cerebral cortex

THALAMUS


CEREBELLUM

Alcoholims causes brain shrinkage to the cerebellum


Emotion and Memory are closely connected.

Amygdala

A little almond shaped structure, connects with the hippocampus.

Hippocampus

Is particularly involved with memory phenomena, specially with the formation of long-term memory (the one that, sometimes, lasts forever).


The pituitary gland may be king, but the power behind the throne is clearly the hypothalamus.


Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex


Motor

Area

Sensory

Area


LANGUAGE CENTERS

Disrupts Understanding

Disrupts Speaking

Speaking the Heard Word

Speaking the Written Word

Angular Gyrus

Speak & Understand, Unable to Read


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