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Ancient Egypt: an Overview. Timeline. Old Kingdom 2650 BC – 2134 BC Middle Kingdom 2125 BC – 1550 BC New Kingdom 1550 BC – 1295 BC. 1. Three Kingdoms of Ancient Egypt. OLD KINGDOM. MIDDLE KINGDOM. NEW KINGDOM.

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Ancient Egypt: an Overview

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Ancient egypt an overview l.jpg

Ancient Egypt:an Overview

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  • Old Kingdom2650 BC – 2134 BC

  • Middle Kingdom2125 BC – 1550 BC

  • New Kingdom1550 BC – 1295 BC


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Three Kingdoms of Ancient Egypt





Pharaohs organized a strong central state, were absolute rulers, and were considered gods.

Egyptians built pyramids at Giza.

Power struggles, crop failures, and cost of pyramids contributed to the collapse of the Old Kingdom.

Large drainage project created arable farmland.

Traders had contacts with Middle East and Crete.

Corruption and

rebellions were


Hyksos invaded and occupied the delta


Powerful pharaohs created a large empire

that reached the Euphrates River.


encouraged trade.

Ramses II expanded Egyptian rule to Syria.

Egyptian power


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  • Egypt is located in northeastern Africa

  • The Nile River runs the length of the country flowing south to north

  • The river begins in the mountains of Africa and empties into the Mediterranean Sea

  • The climate is hot and dry, part of the Sahara Desert

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  • Ancient Egypt was divided into two regions: Upper and Lower Egypt

  • Lower (northern) Egypt consisted of the Nile River's delta made by the river as it empties into the Mediterranean.

  • Upper Egypt was the long, narrow strip of ancient Egypt located south of the Delta.

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The Nile was the lifeblood of ancient Egypt

It made life possible in the otherwise barren desert of Egypt.

It is the longest river in the world (over 4,000 miles).

It served as a source of food for the people of ancient Egypt

It was the major source of water for bathing and drinking

The Nile was crucial for farming

The Nile River

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Blue Nile

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White Nile

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White & Blue Nile Meet in Sudan

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  • The low strip of fertile land located on either side of the Nile River

  • The river flooded during the annual inundation

  • When the inundation subsided, it left the earth soaked and overlaid with a fresh layer of black silt.

  • Most of the farming occurred here

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Nile Delta

  • Located in northern Egypt where the Nile River spreads out and empties into the Mediterranean Sea

  • 240 km of coastline, 106 km in length

  • Rich agricultural region

  • Most fertile soil in Africa

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Bordered on the south, east and west by the Sahara Desert, and on the north by the sea, ancient Egypt was protected from outside influences.

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Great Sahara Desert

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Facts About the Nile River

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  • Belief that many gods and goddesses ruled the world and the afterlife Amon-Re: sun god Osiris: god of the underworld and of the Nile

  • The pharaoh was believed to be a god as well as a ruler

Falcon Headed Sun God

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  • Belief in eternal life after death.

    Relied on the Book of the Dead to help them through the afterworld.

  • Practiced mummification, the preservation of the body for use in the next life.

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Book of the Dead

Collection of spells, hymns, and prayers intended to secure a safe passage to the underworld for the deceased

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Making paper from papyrus

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What is hieroglyphics?

  • Hieroglyphics is the picture writing used in ancient Egypt. The word hieroglyphics is made up of two Greek words - hieros, which means sacred, and glyphe, which means carving.

  • The Egyptian hieroglyphic writing system consists of several hundred picture signs. The signs can be divided into two classes, phonograms and ideograms

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Phonograms represent sounds, much as alphabet letters do. Ideograms are signs that represent whole words or concepts.

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The Great Sphinx

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Egyptian goddess Isis, tomb painting, ca. 1360 BC.

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Social Classes


Earthly leader; considered a god


Served gods and goddesses


Fought pharaoh’s wars


Made furniture, jewelry, and fabrics for

pharaohs and nobles, and provided for other needs


Worked in the fields and served the pharaoh

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Daily Life

The Egyptians - Daily Life

Daily Life in Ancient Egypt

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