Aircraft vertically separated approaches vsa takeoffs vst and split runway sr operations
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Aircraft Vertically Separated Approaches [VSA] -Takeoffs [VST] and Split-Runway [SR] Operations - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Presented at: 46 th AIAA Aerospace Science Meeting and Exhibit Reno, Nevada January 7-10, 2008 Author: Daniel Gellert P.O. Box 3640 Sequim, WA 98382. Aircraft Vertically Separated Approaches [VSA] -Takeoffs [VST] and Split-Runway [SR] Operations. Problem.

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Aircraft Vertically Separated Approaches [VSA] -Takeoffs [VST] and Split-Runway [SR] Operations

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Presented at:

46th AIAA Aerospace Science Meeting and Exhibit

Reno, Nevada

January 7-10, 2008

Author: Daniel Gellert

P.O. Box 3640

Sequim, WA 98382

Aircraft Vertically SeparatedApproaches [VSA] -Takeoffs [VST] and Split-Runway [SR] Operations


  • Airport delays are causing the FAA and Department of Transportation to initiate the reduction of airline schedules and also to consider charging peak hour user fees.

  • New York airport problems are considered to account for about 75% of the nations airline delays and scheduling difficulties.

  • New York’s J. F. K. International Airport is recognized as most critical for delays.


  • Most large domestic and international airports are locked into expensive real estate, with houses businesses nestled on their borders.

  • Therefore, in most cases, land is not available for new airport construction or for major airport expansion.

  • Even a new runway construction will cost a billion dollars or more, if at all possible.


  • The inexpensive division of long runways medially, creates two separate and fully functioning runways for B-737, A-320 and EMB-190 type airliners: one for landing - another for takeoff. Since these airliners are the most frequent in flying from JFK and other airports, the Split-Runway, [SR] process provides exactly the same benefit as building an additional new runway.


  • While delays resulting in airport gridlock are limiting the growth of air transportation, especially at New York’s JFK, the only FAA solution is to cut airline schedules and force airlines to pay higher user fees.

  • FAA is also considering auctioning off to the highest bidder, landing slots currently owned by airlines flying in an out of JFK.

Requirements for New Generation Air Traffic System Improvements

  • Eliminate airport gridlock through SR

  • Use VSA and VST technology

  • Bypass en-route chokepoints

  • Establish Continuous Descent Approaches

  • Establish Jet Climb Corridors

  • Airports provide and pay for ADS-B

  • Airlines equip some airliners for ADS-B

  • Develop RNP approaches & departures

Eliminate Airport Gridlock

  • As an example: divide the JFK 14,571 ft. long runways 13R and 31L medially, than use the approach end as an independent 7,000 ft. runway for landings, and use the 7,000 ft. far end as an independent takeoff runway for B-737, A-320 and EMB-190 type airliners. This will double operations.

  • The full length will continue to be used for ‘heavy’ A-380 and B-747 type airliners.

Heavy & Large Airliners

JFK Split-Runways 13L 13R

Are Split-Runway Operations OK?

  • B-757 airliners, which are considerably larger than B-737 airliners, are currently landing and taking off on Chicago Midway Airport’s 31L and 31R runways, which are only 6,519 feet long.

    Therefore the 7,000 feet Split-Runway [SR] procedures planned for JFK and the other major domestic and international airports are close to 500 feet longer/safer.

Midway 6519 & 6102 Ft. Runways

New York LGA 7,000 ft. Runways

  • Because the FAA approved me to fly 500,000 pound [250 ton] heavy L-1011 airliners from LGA’s 7,000 runways, the FAA cannot logically oppose to implement Split-Runway [SR] flight operations for large 170,000 pound [140 ton] B-737 airliners at JFK by splitting the 14,571 ft. runways into two 7,000 ft. independent landing and takeoff runways.

LGA 7,000 ft. Runways

JFK and LGA Comparisons

JFK SR Missed Approaches

JFK Airport Runways 31L & 13R

JFK Runways 4L & 4R

Washington [DCA] 6989 Runway

  • Washington DCA Airport’s longest runway is 6,989 feet long and handles up to B-757 airline traffic.

  • This is further evidence that the 7,000 feet long JFK Split-Runway [SR] operations are practical, FAA approvable and safe.

  • I have personally flown B-757 airliners from this 6,989 DCA runway.

Washington National Airport DCA

FAA Regulation for Low Approach

  • FAA 3-131 authorizes low approaches to not less than 500 feet above an aircraft in takeoff position on the runway.

  • Since during SR flight operations at JFK, for instance, the takeoff airliner would be on the takeoff runway some 7,000 ft. from an approaching aircraft, this would be considerably safer under FAA 3-131, than current FAA approved low approaches.

FAA Same Runway Separation

  • FAA 3-122 provides in part: “Separate an arriving aircraft from another aircraft . . . (2) the aircraft is airborne, it need not have crossed the runway end if the following minimum distance from the landing threshold exists: [c] When either is a category III aircraft – 6000 feet.”

  • [FAA category III in this case applies to jets.]

  • Since the 7,000 ft. distance of the takeoff runway at JFK is 1,000 feet more than 6,000 ft. required by the FAA - the departing airliner is more than 1,000 ft. beyond the required 6,000 ft. minimum. Therefore, SR runways are in FAA compliance.

Split-Runway [SR] Safety

  • Split-Runway operations will prevent the type of crashes, such as a USAIR B-737 landing on top of an airliner positioned on the end of a LAX runway awaiting takeoff clearance. This cannot happen with SR.

  • Split-Runway operations are unique in that

    these are independent runways, marked as such, and are dispatched accordingly.

SR Implementation Policy

  • Phase One: aircraft cleared into position for immediate takeoff after landing aircraft safely on runway. This phase provides for training and for operational confidence.

  • Phase Two: takeoff to commence when approaching aircraft has landing assured.

  • Phase Three: simultaneous landing and takeoff operations.

SR Requirements

  • Captain only landings, unless emergency is declared.

  • Prior to SR landing clearance, report of three green, landing gear down and locked must be reported to ATC.

  • Aircraft must be configured for landing prior to final approach fix [FAF] or missed approach must be initiated.

Special SR Crew Training

  • Flight crews must have training in SR flight operations and procedures.

  • For all flight operations the avoidance of hydroplaning is essential. Pilots must know the hydroplaning speed and use engine reverse to drop below this speed.

  • 7,000 ft. runway is sufficient under most conditions for B-737 type airliners, still proper braking should be emphasized.


Gee-I-Didn’t See Him Coming


Blue Angel-Ground Effect on Water


St. Thomas Restricted Airport

Special/Restrictions St. Thomas

Split-Runway [SR] Benefits

  • B-737, A-320 and EMB-190 type SR capable airliners departing JFK, do not have to taxi long distances to the far end of the long 14,571 ft. runway as today.

  • SR operations saves about 700 gallons of jet fuel, reduces crew costs, increases aircraft utilization, eliminates passenger confinement on departing airliners since takeoff sequences are greatly increased.

Vertically Separated Approaches [VSA] and Takeoffs [VST]

  • VSA and VST are offered as a means to reduce approach and takeoff distances between ‘heavy’ and other airliners to the minimum 3 miles of separation required to avoid collision of aircraft in flight.

  • Airliners use Vertical Separation [VSA] & [VST] technology to fly safely above wake turbulence when following ‘heavy’ aircraft.

Vertically Separated Approaches [VSA]

  • B-737 type airliners on VSA approaches follow heavy airliners 3 miles behind and flying above the wake turbulence land 7,000 feet down on the second half of the Split-Runway.

Vertically Separated Approaches Can Also Be Used By Two Similar Airliners To Expedite Landings

Vertically Separated Takeoffs [VST]

  • The B-737 type aircraft following a ‘heavy’ aircraft takeoff climbs on a minimum 15 degree divergent course to 1,000 feet above the heavy.

VSA and VST Diagram

Dangerous LAX Runway Incursions

  • Los Angeles International Airport, LAX has continuous runway incursions. LAX is relocating/moving two runways to create taxiways between the two north and also the two south parallel runways.

  • LAX should install colored taxi crossing lights to supplement voice instructions on radio and build Split-Runway crossings.

Los Angeles [LAX] Airport

Bypass En-Route Chokepoints

  • Establish the use of INS/IRS, GPS and FMC-offset free-flight for en-route traffic to bypass the presently existing chokepoints on airways.

  • Air traffic with out operating systems to self navigate can be vectored around these chokepoints by ATC.

Create CDA and JCC Corridors

  • Continuous Descent Approaches [CDA] and Jet Climb Corridors [JCC] operations take up less airspace, save fuel, create less noise, less controller work load, more

    efficient, cause considerably less airport delays, and are safer by avoiding near miss incidents.

Airports Buy and Pay for ADS-B

  • Airports, especially JFK should buy their ADS-B equipment to eliminate delays.

  • Airlines should equip and dedicate some of their aircraft to fly into these selected and ADS-B equipped airports. This will make it possible for airlines to take advantage of the RNP approach and departure technology.


  • If the the Department of Transportation or the FAA had a plan or idea how to solve the airport delays and gridlock, they would not be cutting airline schedules.

  • The break-through Split-Runway [SR] VSA, VST technologies are the only registered possibilities offering hope to resolve these major disruptive problems.

LAX Crash

TWA 800 Fuel Explosion

American B-757 Cali Crash

American B-757 Page 2, Cali

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