LITERATURE SHORT STORY \nBY STEPHEN CRANE
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BY : STEPHEN
MEIS MOHAMMED 12G2
Stephen Crane (November 1, 1871 – June 5, 1900) was an American
author. Prolific throughout his short life, he wrote notable works in
the Realist tradition as well as early examples of American
Naturalism and Impressionism. He is recognized by modern critics
as one of the most innovative writers of his generation.
Nature’s Indifference to Man Despite the
narrator’s profusion of animistic (animal-
like), humanistic (manlike), and deistic
(godlike) characterizations of nature, Crane
makes clear that nature is ultimately
indifferent to the plight of man, possessing
no consciousness that we can understand. As
the stranded men progress through the
story, the reality of nature’s lack of concern
for them becomes increasingly clear. The
narrator highlights this development by
changing the way he describes the sea. Early
in the story, the sea snarls, hisses, and bucks
like a bronco; later, it merely “paces to and
fro,” no longer an actor in the men’s drama.
In reality, the sea does not change at all; only
the men’s perception of the sea changes. The
unaltered activity of the gulls, clouds, and
One of the literary devices that Crane uses in his writings is
personification. Personification is the use of giving non human
things human like characteristics. Crane gives the waves human
like characteristics in the story to get a point across about the
waves. In, "The Open Boat: A Work of Figurative Language and
Imagery," Claudon writes that Crane gives the sea, animal
characteristics when he says they, "growl and roar, snarl and are
wild." This is stating that the waves as fierce as animals in the
wild. Crane also says, "The boat is a bronco and a wild colt which
prances, rears, plunges and leaps."
frantic, confused, exhausted, suspenseful ... all the emotions they
go through as they try to bring the boat to safety.