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CHAPTER. 30. QUIT. Revolution and Nationalism , 1900–1939. Chapter Overview. Time Line. Revolutions in Russia. 1. SECTION. Patterns of Change: Totalitarianism. 2. MAP. SECTION. Collapse of Chinese Imperial Rule. 3. SECTION. Nationalism in India and Southwest Asia. 4. SECTION.

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CHAPTER

30

QUIT

Revolution and

Nationalism, 1900–1939

Chapter Overview

Time Line

Revolutions in Russia

1

SECTION

Patterns of Change: Totalitarianism

2

MAP

SECTION

Collapse of Chinese Imperial Rule

3

SECTION

Nationalism in India and Southwest Asia

4

SECTION

GRAPH

Visual Summary


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CHAPTER

30

Chapter Overview

HOME

Revolution and

Nationalism, 1900–1939

Social unrest in Russia erupts in revolution. Under Stalin, the U.S.S.R. becomes a totalitarian state. After the Qing dynasty falls, Chinese Nationalists and Communists clash. World War I fuels nationalism in India and Southwest Asia.


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CHAPTER

30

1939

1900

HOME

Revolution and

Nationalism, 1900–1939

Time Line

1905Russian workers protest, asking for better conditions.

1920Gandhi leads Indian campaign of civil disobedience.

1929Stalin exiles Trotsky from Soviet Union.

1935India gains self-rule.

1912Chinese Nationalist oust the last Qing emperor.

1923Turkey becomes a republic under Mustafa Kemal.

1934Mao Zedong heads Long March.


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1

HOME

Revolutions in Russia

Key Idea

The Russian Revolutions of 1917 end czarist rule and usher in the first communist government. Lenin seizes power and launches major economic and political reforms.

Overview

Assessment


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1

TERMS & NAMES

MAIN IDEA

HOME

Revolutions in Russia

Overview

•pogrom

•Trans-Siberian Railway

•Bolsheviks

•V. I. Lenin

•Duma

•Rasputin

•provisional government

•soviet

WHY IT MATTERS NOW

Long-term social unrest in Russia erupted in revolution, ushering in the first Communist government.

The Communist Party controlled the Soviet Union until the country’s breakup in 1991.

Assessment


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1

1

Section

Assessment

1891

1917

1922

1894

1921

HOME

Revolutions in Russia

1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List significant events during the last phases of czarist rule and the beginning of Communist rule.

Construction of the Trans-Siberian Railroad begins.

Russian Revolution ends czarist rule.

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is formed.

Nicholas II becomes the last Russian czar.

Lenin launches New Economic Policy.

continued . . .


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1

HOME

Revolutions in Russia

1

Section

Assessment

2. What do you think were Czar Nicholas II’s worst errors in judgment during his rule? Why? THINK ABOUT

•the czar’s military decisions

•the political outcome of “Bloody Sunday”

ANSWER

Involvement in the Russo-Japanese War, the czar’s refusal to share power with the Duma, Russia’s entry into World War I, and the czar’s change of headquarters to the war front all paved the way to revolution and the end of czarist rule.

Possible Responses:

continued . . .


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1

HOME

Revolutions in Russia

1

Section

Assessment

3. Why was Lenin’s leadership crucial to the success of the Russian Revolution? THINK ABOUT

•Lenin’s personal traits

•his slogan—“Peace, Land, and Bread”

•his role in organizing the Bolsheviks

•his role after the Revolution

ANSWER

Lenin was able to win and maintain power because of his energetic, disciplined leadership; his awareness of the demands of various groups in Russian society; his careful planning; and his ability to tackle difficult problems and crises.

Possible Responses:

End of Section 1


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2

PATTERNS

OF CHANGE

HOME

Totalitarianism

CASE STUDY: Stalinist Russia

MAP

Key Idea

After Lenin’s death, Stalin transforms the Soviet Union into a totalitarian state. He revolutionizes the economy and uses terror, propaganda, and censorship to maintain power.

Overview

Assessment


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PATTERNS

OF CHANGE

TERMS & NAMES

MAIN IDEA

HOME

Totalitarianism

2

CASE STUDY: Stalinist Russia

MAP

Overview

•Joseph Stalin

•totalitarianism

•command economy

•collective farm

•kulak

•Great Purge

•socialist realism

WHY IT MATTERS NOW

After Lenin died, Stalin seized power and transformed the Soviet Union into a totalitarian state.

More recent dictators have used Stalin’s tactics for seizing total control over individuals and the state.

Assessment


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2

PATTERNS

OF CHANGE

Weapons

Examples

Police Terror

Propaganda

Censorship

Religious Persecution

HOME

Totalitarianism

CASE STUDY: Stalinist Russia

MAP

2

Section

Assessment

1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Cite examples from Stalinist Russia for each weapon of totalitarianism listed below.

Great Purge, execution of kulaks

Socialist realism, training of youth

Government-controlled media

Destruction of buildings, elimination of leadership

continued . . .


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2

PATTERNS

OF CHANGE

HOME

Totalitarianism

CASE STUDY: Stalinist Russia

MAP

2

Section

Assessment

2. How do totalitarian states and constitutional governments differ? THINK ABOUT

•the chart explaining the key traits of totalitarianism

•what you have learned about constitutional government in the United States

•what you learned about the Soviet Constitution

ANSWER

Totalitarian: centralized under one leader, control all sectors of society and people’s lives, rely on force and propaganda

Democratic: separation of powers, run by elected leaders, allow private ownership and freedom, maintain military for defense

Possible Responses:

End of Section 2


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3

HOME

Collapse of Chinese

Imperial Rule

Key Idea

In 1912, Chinese nationalists overthrow the Qing dynasty and establish a new republic. Civil war erupts as Nationalists and Communists vie for control of China.

Overview

Assessment


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3

TERMS & NAMES

MAIN IDEA

HOME

Collapse of Chinese

Imperial Rule

Overview

•Kuomintang

•Sun Yixian

•Mao Zedong

•May Fourth Movement

•Long March

WHY IT MATTERS NOW

After the fall of the Qing dynasty, nationalist and Communist movements struggled for power.

The seeds of China’s late-20th-century political thought, communism, were planted at this time.

Assessment


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3

Jiang

Mao

Party

Key Supporters

Reforms

Military Actions

HOME

Collapse of Chinese

Imperial Rule

3

Section

Assessment

1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Compare and contrast Jiang Jieshi and Mao Zedong.

Nationalist

Communist

Bankers and business people

Peasants

Launched programs to modernize cities

Divided land among local farmers

Defeated warlords

Established Red Army

continued . . .


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3

HOME

Collapse of Chinese

Imperial Rule

3

Section

Assessment

2. What influence did foreign nations have on China from 1912 to 1938? THINK ABOUT

•the outcome of the Treaty of Versailles

•the role of the Soviet Union

•the temporary truce during the Chinese civil war

ANSWER

• The Treaty of Versailles triggered the May Fourth Movement.

•Western democracies refused to support Sun’s government, but the Soviet Union did.

•Great Britain and United States recognized the Nationalist Republic of China.

•Japan’s invasion of China united Jiang’s and Mao’s forces.

Possible Responses:

continued . . .


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3

HOME

Collapse of Chinese

Imperial Rule

3

Section

Assessment

3. What caused the Communist revolutionary movement in China to gain strength?THINK ABOUT

•Jiang’s government and policies

•the Soviet Union’s influence

•the conditions of rural peasants

•Mao’s role and achievements

ANSWER

•Failures of the Kuomintang

•Corruption in Jiang’s government

•Soviet Union’s involvement in Chinese affairs

•Poverty of peasants

•Mao’s strong leadership

Possible Responses:

End of Section 3


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4

HOME

Nationalism in India

and Southwest Asia

GRAPH

Key Idea

World War I heightens nationalist activity and independence movements to overthrow colonial power. Gandhi uses nonviolent tactics to free India from British rule. Turkey, Persia, and Arabia also seek self-rule.

Overview

Assessment


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4

TERMS & NAMES

MAIN IDEA

HOME

Nationalism in India

and Southwest Asia

GRAPH

Overview

•Mohandas K. Gandhi

•civil disobedience

•Mustafa Kemal

WHY IT MATTERS NOW

Nationalism triggered independence movements to overthrow colonial power.

These independent nations—India, Turkey, Iran, and Saudi Arabia—are key players on the world stage today.

Assessment


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4

India

Persia

Forms of Nationalism

1900-1939

Turkey

Saudi Arabia

HOME

Nationalism in India

and Southwest Asia

GRAPH

4

Section

Assessment

1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Describe the different forms of nationalism that developed in the Asian countries listed below.

  • Nationalists free Persia from British and Russian rule.

Nationalists use nonviolent methods to work for independence from British rule.

  • Reza Shah changes country’s name to Iran.

  • Nationalists overthrow last Ottoman sultan.

Ibn Saud unifies the nation and creates a state based on Islamic law.

  • Kemal seeks Western-style modernization.

continued . . .


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4

HOME

Nationalism in India

and Southwest Asia

GRAPH

4

Section

Assessment

2. What do you think a nation might gain and lose by modernizing? THINK ABOUT

•what positive changes occurred in Turkey and Iran

•why modernization was limited in Saudi Arabia

•why Kemal set rules for clothing

•why Gandhi wore only homespun cloth

ANSWER

Gains—increased economic and political power; greater acceptance and respect from Western nations; equal rights for women

Losses—a unique sense of cultural identity; traditional values and ways of life

Possible Responses:

End of Section 4


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