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?. Oscillogram. consonant. consonant. vowel. ?. Spectrogram. release burst. aspiration. vowel with low F1. silent gap. F1 rule. F1 Rule: the frequency of F1 tends to decrease with increases in tongue height /a/: F1 = 730 Hz /æ/: F1 = 660 Hz /o/: F1 = 570 Hz /e/: F1 = 530 Hz

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Presentation Transcript
oscillogram
Oscillogram

consonant

consonant

vowel

spectrogram
Spectrogram

release

burst

aspiration

vowel with low F1

silent gap

f1 rule
F1 rule
  • F1 Rule: the frequency of F1 tends to decrease with increases in tongue height
  • /a/: F1 = 730 Hz
  • /æ/: F1 = 660 Hz
  • /o/: F1 = 570 Hz
  • /e/: F1 = 530 Hz
  • /I/: F1 = 390 Hz
  • /u/: F1 = 300 Hz
  • /i/: F1 = 270 Hz

low

high

spectrogram6
Spectrogram

voiced stop

voiceless stop

high vowel: /i/, /u/?

spectrogram7
Spectrogram

g o o d

voiced stop

voiceless stop

high vowel: /i/, /u/?

slide9
?

high intensity at

high frequency

antiformants

“white” noise

no release burst

low F1

high F2

f2 rule
F2 rule
  • F2 Rule: the frequency of F2 tends to decrease with backward tongue position.
  • /æ/: F2 = 1720 Hz
  • /e/: F2 = 1840 Hz
  • /I/: F2 = 1990 Hz
  • /i/: F2 = 2290 Hz
  • /a/: F2 = 1090 Hz
  • /o/: F2 = 840 Hz
  • /u/: F2 = 870 Hz

front

back

spetrogram
Spetrogram

nasal /ŋ/

fricative /s/

high front vowel /i/

short answer questions
short answer questions

Which muscles close the jaw?

short answer questions22
short answer questions

Which muscles close the jaw?

  • masseter
  • temporalis
  • medial pterygoid
short answer questions23
short answer questions

What is shimmer?

short answer questions24
short answer questions

What is shimmer?

  • Shimmer means the variability in the amplitude of vocal fold vibrations.
systematic
Systematic

feedback

resonator

brain

brainstem

muscle

cranial nerve

cerebellum

systematic26
Systematic

stroke

Parkinson’s

Multiple sclerosis

ALS

hearing impairment

feedback

resonator

myo-pathies

brain

brainstem

muscle

cranial nerve

tumour

tumour

stroke

cleft palate

cerebellum

cerebellar disorder

multiple sclerosis

dysarthria
Dysarthria
  • a motor speech disorder
  • weakness, paralysis or loss of coordination
  • affects muscles important for respiration, phonation, or articulation
  • due to a neurological disorder
  • often associated with swallowing impairment (dysphagia)
dysarthria28
Dysarthria
  • Dysarthria is a broad term:
  • upper motor neuron
    • spastic (e.g. due to multiple sclerosis)
    • hypokinetic (e.g. due to Parkinson’s disease)
    • hyperkinetic (e.g. due to Huntington’s disease)
    • ataxic (e.g. due to cerebellar disorder)
  • lower motor neuron
    • flaccid (e.g. damage of the cranial nerves)
dysarthria29
Dysarthria

vowel and consonant duration

  • difficulties with the timing of speech
  • often weak, slow tongue movements
  • durations are longer and more variable than usual
  • normal speakers: about 5 syllables per second; patients with dysarthria usually have considerably less (~3 syllables per second)
dysarthria30
Dysarthria

Vowel formants

  • reduced tongue motion
  • the tongue positions of the non-neutral vowels are not reached
  • tongue position is closer to the neutral ə (schwa) vowel
  • reduced range of F1 and F2 frequencies
  • is perceived as a vowel distortion
dysarthria31
Dysarthria

Formant transitions

  • slower tongue movement
  • slope index: measured in Hz per ms (frequency change over time)
dysarthria32
Dysarthria

consonants

  • Fricatives and affricates are particularly difficult due to a lack of precise tongue control
fricatives
Fricatives
  • air is forced through a constriction
  • pressurized air becomes turbulent
  • turbulent air results in white noise (frication)
  • white noise contains all frequencies with an evenly distribution of intensity over frequencies.

thy

affricates
Affricates
  • one place of articulation in english: palatal
  • “ch”, “j”
  • combine the features of stops and fricatives: stop gap + frication noise

chin

hearing impairment
Hearing impairment
  • no acoustic feedback
  • most frequent: distortion of vowels
  • imprecise tongue position
models of speech production37
Models of speech production

system

model

articulation

phonation

respiration

models of speech production38
Models of speech production
  • How does the brain produce all those movements that are necessary for speech production?
    • the brain controls every muscle independently (unlikely) vs.
    • the brain executes more complex motor programs for entire phonemes or even syllables (much more likely)
models of speech production39
Models of speech production
  • How can the brain adjust these motor programs if necessary (assimilation, coarticulation, speaking with a pen between the teeth)?
    • spatial target model: the brain executes motor programs that point to specific anatomical targets
    • acoustic target model: the brain executes motor programs that are optimized to produce certain acoustic features (F1, F2, etc.)
models of speech production40
Models of speech production
  • How can the brain produce speech that fast?
    • motor programs control many muscles at once
    • connectionist models (spreading activation models, parallel-distributed processing models) emphasize parallel processing: different commands can be executed at the same time (essential for e.g. coarticulation)
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