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?. Oscillogram. consonant. consonant. vowel. ?. Spectrogram. release burst. aspiration. vowel with low F1. silent gap. F1 rule. F1 Rule: the frequency of F1 tends to decrease with increases in tongue height /a/: F1 = 730 Hz /æ/: F1 = 660 Hz /o/: F1 = 570 Hz /e/: F1 = 530 Hz

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Oscillogram

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?


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Oscillogram

consonant

consonant

vowel


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?


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Spectrogram

release

burst

aspiration

vowel with low F1

silent gap


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F1 rule

  • F1 Rule: the frequency of F1 tends to decrease with increases in tongue height

  • /a/: F1 = 730 Hz

  • /æ/: F1 = 660 Hz

  • /o/: F1 = 570 Hz

  • /e/: F1 = 530 Hz

  • /I/: F1 = 390 Hz

  • /u/: F1 = 300 Hz

  • /i/: F1 = 270 Hz

low

high


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Spectrogram

voiced stop

voiceless stop

high vowel: /i/, /u/?


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Spectrogram

g o o d

voiced stop

voiceless stop

high vowel: /i/, /u/?


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?


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?

high intensity at

high frequency

antiformants

“white” noise

no release burst

low F1

high F2


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F2 rule

  • F2 Rule: the frequency of F2 tends to decrease with backward tongue position.

  • /æ/: F2 = 1720 Hz

  • /e/: F2 = 1840 Hz

  • /I/: F2 = 1990 Hz

  • /i/: F2 = 2290 Hz

  • /a/: F2 = 1090 Hz

  • /o/: F2 = 840 Hz

  • /u/: F2 = 870 Hz

front

back


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Spetrogram

nasal /ŋ/

fricative /s/

high front vowel /i/


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?


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Spectrogram

lie


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?


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Spectrogram

buy


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Spectrogram


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Spectrogram

thy


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Spectrogram


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Spectrogram

chin


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?


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short answer questions

Which muscles close the jaw?


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short answer questions

Which muscles close the jaw?

  • masseter

  • temporalis

  • medial pterygoid


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short answer questions

What is shimmer?


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short answer questions

What is shimmer?

  • Shimmer means the variability in the amplitude of vocal fold vibrations.


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Systematic

feedback

resonator

brain

brainstem

muscle

cranial nerve

cerebellum


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Systematic

stroke

Parkinson’s

Multiple sclerosis

ALS

hearing impairment

feedback

resonator

myo-pathies

brain

brainstem

muscle

cranial nerve

tumour

tumour

stroke

cleft palate

cerebellum

cerebellar disorder

multiple sclerosis


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Dysarthria

  • a motor speech disorder

  • weakness, paralysis or loss of coordination

  • affects muscles important for respiration, phonation, or articulation

  • due to a neurological disorder

  • often associated with swallowing impairment (dysphagia)


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Dysarthria

  • Dysarthria is a broad term:

  • upper motor neuron

    • spastic (e.g. due to multiple sclerosis)

    • hypokinetic (e.g. due to Parkinson’s disease)

    • hyperkinetic (e.g. due to Huntington’s disease)

    • ataxic (e.g. due to cerebellar disorder)

  • lower motor neuron

    • flaccid (e.g. damage of the cranial nerves)


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Dysarthria

vowel and consonant duration

  • difficulties with the timing of speech

  • often weak, slow tongue movements

  • durations are longer and more variable than usual

  • normal speakers: about 5 syllables per second; patients with dysarthria usually have considerably less (~3 syllables per second)


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Dysarthria

Vowel formants

  • reduced tongue motion

  • the tongue positions of the non-neutral vowels are not reached

  • tongue position is closer to the neutral ə (schwa) vowel

  • reduced range of F1 and F2 frequencies

  • is perceived as a vowel distortion


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Dysarthria

Formant transitions

  • slower tongue movement

  • slope index: measured in Hz per ms (frequency change over time)


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Dysarthria

consonants

  • Fricatives and affricates are particularly difficult due to a lack of precise tongue control


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Fricatives

  • air is forced through a constriction

  • pressurized air becomes turbulent

  • turbulent air results in white noise (frication)

  • white noise contains all frequencies with an evenly distribution of intensity over frequencies.

thy


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Affricates

  • one place of articulation in english: palatal

  • “ch”, “j”

  • combine the features of stops and fricatives: stop gap + frication noise

chin


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Hearing impairment

  • no acoustic feedback

  • most frequent: distortion of vowels

  • imprecise tongue position


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Models of speech production

system


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Models of speech production

system

model

articulation

phonation

respiration


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Models of speech production

  • How does the brain produce all those movements that are necessary for speech production?

    • the brain controls every muscle independently (unlikely) vs.

    • the brain executes more complex motor programs for entire phonemes or even syllables (much more likely)


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Models of speech production

  • How can the brain adjust these motor programs if necessary (assimilation, coarticulation, speaking with a pen between the teeth)?

    • spatial target model: the brain executes motor programs that point to specific anatomical targets

    • acoustic target model: the brain executes motor programs that are optimized to produce certain acoustic features (F1, F2, etc.)


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Models of speech production

  • How can the brain produce speech that fast?

    • motor programs control many muscles at once

    • connectionist models (spreading activation models, parallel-distributed processing models) emphasize parallel processing: different commands can be executed at the same time (essential for e.g. coarticulation)


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