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Genetics and Genetic Engineering PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Genetics and Genetic Engineering. terms. agar- porous gelatin like material used as a support matrix for living cells in artificial environments . centrifuge. device for separating substances on the basis of density. clones.

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Genetics and Genetic Engineering

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Genetics and genetic engineering l.jpg

Genetics and Genetic Engineering


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terms

  • agar- porous gelatin like material used as a support matrix for living cells in artificial environments


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centrifuge

  • device for separating substances on the basis of density


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clones

  • organisms or cells of nearly identical genetic makeup derived from a single source


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complementary

  • containing structures that match or bond with related structures


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electrophoresis

  • technique used to separate migrating molecules in an electrical field


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Excise

  • to remove a part by a process similar to cutting


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Expression

  • the appearance of a trait directed by a gene


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Genetic code

  • a series of three nucleotide bases that determine the amino acid order and the proteins formed in cell reproduction


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Genetic Engineering

  • technology involved in removing, modifying, or adding genes to a DNA molecule


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Genetics

  • science dealing with passage of traits from one generation to another


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Host

  • a cell or organism that harbors another organism or DNA from a foreign source


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Hybrid

  • offspring or cell originating from parents with differing genetic makeup


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Ligase

  • enzyme used to join two pieces of DNA


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Molecular weight

  • sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms in a molecule


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Mutation

  • a heritable change in genetic makeup


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Nucleotides

  • building blocks of nucleic acid composed of a sugar, a phosphate and a nitrogenous base


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Plasmid

  • a small, usually circular, piece of DNA that is separate from the chromosomal DNA


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Polymerase

  • an enzyme that joins nucleotides to make nucleic acid


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Recombinant DNA

  • DNA that has been altered by genetic engineering


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Restriction enzyme

  • restriction endonuclease

  • enzyme that cuts DNA strands at specific sites


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sequence

  • order of nucleotides or amino acids


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template

  • a pattern used for developing a complementary structure


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trait

  • a characteristic resulting from gene expression


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transform

  • to change the genetic makeup of an organism by alteration of the DNA


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vector

  • an agent such as a plasmid used to transfer DNA into a host cell


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Living material

  • Organism - unit of living matter capable of independent function and reproduction


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Complex Organism

  • higher organism

  • an organism with cells, tissues, and organs arranged to function as a single unit

  • ex. Plants, animals, humans


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Organ

  • arrangement of tissues which provides life support function for an organism

  • leaf is an organ that carries out respiration, transpiration and ps.


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Tissue

  • arrangement of cells with similar structures in clusters or sheets for specific function in an organ


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Cell

  • smallest structural unit of living matter that is capable of carrying out basic life processes


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Basic Cell structures

  • cell wall - protective layer in plants that keeps the cell intact


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cell membrane

  • delicate structure that surrounds the cell


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chloroplasts

  • site of photosynthesis in plant cells

  • contain some DNA


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Cytoplasm

  • cell fluid containing all cell structures


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Nucleus

  • control center of a cell

  • contains most of the DNA


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Chromosomes

  • structures that are physical carriers of genes

  • made p of DNA

  • are located in cell nucleus


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Mitochondria

  • energy producing structures in the cell cytoplasm

  • contain some DNA


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Plasmid

  • extra chromosomal piece of DNA

  • located in the cell cytoplasm


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Ribosome

  • site where new proteins are produced

  • result of genetic expression


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Cell reproduction

  • mitosis - occurs in body (somatic) cells

  • increases by simple division

  • chromosomes remain paired during cell division


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meiosis

  • occurs in reproductive cells (gametes)


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meiosis

  • increases by division into single chromosomes and recombination of male and female cells to form a new individual


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meiosis

  • one chromosome from each parent forms the new pair

  • each organism has a specific number of paired chromosomes


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Genetic engineering

  • technology involved in removing, modifying, or adding genes to a DNA molecule


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Genetic engineering

  • movement of a gene from one organism to another


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Other names

  • recombinant DNA technology

  • recombinant DNA science

  • gene transfer

  • gene splicing gene cloning


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Naturally occurring

  • alternations in the genetic makeup of plants and animals allow them to respond to changes in their environment


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Naturally occurring

  • some bacteria and viruses change the function of cells by inserting their DNA into the DNA of the cell


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Naturally occurring

  • natural selection ensures that the adapted individual leaves offspring for the next generation


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Scientific Gen eng.

  • Scientists have developed the ability to transfer genetic material from one organism to another


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Scientific Gen eng.

  • Plasmids found in some organisms can be engineered to accept DNA from other sources


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Scientific Gen eng.

  • Restriction enzymes are used to cut the DNA at specific sites

  • cut ends of plasmid rings can accept pieces of DNA from other organisms


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Scientific Gen eng.

  • The ability to cut and splice DNA segments is providing many opportunities for changing the function of organisms


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