Genetics and genetic engineering l.jpg
Sponsored Links
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
1 / 55

Genetics and Genetic Engineering PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Genetics and Genetic Engineering. terms. agar- porous gelatin like material used as a support matrix for living cells in artificial environments . centrifuge. device for separating substances on the basis of density. clones.

Download Presentation

Genetics and Genetic Engineering

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript

Genetics and Genetic Engineering


  • agar- porous gelatin like material used as a support matrix for living cells in artificial environments


  • device for separating substances on the basis of density


  • organisms or cells of nearly identical genetic makeup derived from a single source


  • containing structures that match or bond with related structures


  • technique used to separate migrating molecules in an electrical field


  • to remove a part by a process similar to cutting


  • the appearance of a trait directed by a gene

Genetic code

  • a series of three nucleotide bases that determine the amino acid order and the proteins formed in cell reproduction

Genetic Engineering

  • technology involved in removing, modifying, or adding genes to a DNA molecule


  • science dealing with passage of traits from one generation to another


  • a cell or organism that harbors another organism or DNA from a foreign source


  • offspring or cell originating from parents with differing genetic makeup


  • enzyme used to join two pieces of DNA

Molecular weight

  • sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms in a molecule


  • a heritable change in genetic makeup


  • building blocks of nucleic acid composed of a sugar, a phosphate and a nitrogenous base


  • a small, usually circular, piece of DNA that is separate from the chromosomal DNA


  • an enzyme that joins nucleotides to make nucleic acid

Recombinant DNA

  • DNA that has been altered by genetic engineering

Restriction enzyme

  • restriction endonuclease

  • enzyme that cuts DNA strands at specific sites


  • order of nucleotides or amino acids


  • a pattern used for developing a complementary structure


  • a characteristic resulting from gene expression


  • to change the genetic makeup of an organism by alteration of the DNA


  • an agent such as a plasmid used to transfer DNA into a host cell

Living material

  • Organism - unit of living matter capable of independent function and reproduction

Complex Organism

  • higher organism

  • an organism with cells, tissues, and organs arranged to function as a single unit

  • ex. Plants, animals, humans


  • arrangement of tissues which provides life support function for an organism

  • leaf is an organ that carries out respiration, transpiration and ps.


  • arrangement of cells with similar structures in clusters or sheets for specific function in an organ


  • smallest structural unit of living matter that is capable of carrying out basic life processes

Basic Cell structures

  • cell wall - protective layer in plants that keeps the cell intact

cell membrane

  • delicate structure that surrounds the cell


  • site of photosynthesis in plant cells

  • contain some DNA


  • cell fluid containing all cell structures


  • control center of a cell

  • contains most of the DNA


  • structures that are physical carriers of genes

  • made p of DNA

  • are located in cell nucleus


  • energy producing structures in the cell cytoplasm

  • contain some DNA


  • extra chromosomal piece of DNA

  • located in the cell cytoplasm


  • site where new proteins are produced

  • result of genetic expression

Cell reproduction

  • mitosis - occurs in body (somatic) cells

  • increases by simple division

  • chromosomes remain paired during cell division


  • occurs in reproductive cells (gametes)


  • increases by division into single chromosomes and recombination of male and female cells to form a new individual


  • one chromosome from each parent forms the new pair

  • each organism has a specific number of paired chromosomes

Genetic engineering

  • technology involved in removing, modifying, or adding genes to a DNA molecule

Genetic engineering

  • movement of a gene from one organism to another

Other names

  • recombinant DNA technology

  • recombinant DNA science

  • gene transfer

  • gene splicing gene cloning

Naturally occurring

  • alternations in the genetic makeup of plants and animals allow them to respond to changes in their environment

Naturally occurring

  • some bacteria and viruses change the function of cells by inserting their DNA into the DNA of the cell

Naturally occurring

  • natural selection ensures that the adapted individual leaves offspring for the next generation

Scientific Gen eng.

  • Scientists have developed the ability to transfer genetic material from one organism to another

Scientific Gen eng.

  • Plasmids found in some organisms can be engineered to accept DNA from other sources

Scientific Gen eng.

  • Restriction enzymes are used to cut the DNA at specific sites

  • cut ends of plasmid rings can accept pieces of DNA from other organisms

Scientific Gen eng.

  • The ability to cut and splice DNA segments is providing many opportunities for changing the function of organisms

  • Login