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Design of TeamWorkStation : A Real-Time Shared Workspace Fusing Desktops and Computer Screens. -Hiroshi ISHII -Masaaki OHKUBO Presented by: Bikash Mandal. Citation Detail. Title: Design of TeamWorkStation: A real-time shared workspace fusing desktops and computer screen. Authors:

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Design of teamworkstation a real time shared workspace fusing desktops and computer screens l.jpg

Design of TeamWorkStation: A Real-Time Shared Workspace Fusing Desktops and Computer Screens

-Hiroshi ISHII

-Masaaki OHKUBO

Presented by: Bikash Mandal


Citation detail l.jpg
Citation Detail

  • Title:

    • Design of TeamWorkStation: A real-time shared workspace fusing desktops and computer screen.

  • Authors:

    • Hiroshi ISHII and Masaaki OHKUBO, NTT Human Interface Laboratory, Japan.

  • Citation:

    • Ishii, H., and M. Ohkubo. "Design of TeamWorkStation: A real-time shared workspace fusing desktops and computer screen." Proceedings of IFIP WG8.4 Conference on Multi-User Interfaces and Applications, Crete, North Holland,

  • Reprinted in:

    • Readings in GroupWare and Computer-Supported Cooperative Work: Assisting Human-Human Collaboration by Ronald M. Baecker on pp. 823-828.


About the authors 1 2 l.jpg
About The Authors (1/2)

  • Hirosii Ishii

    • Associate Professor

    • Media Arts and Sciences, Tangible Media Group, MIT Media Laboratory

  • BE,ME, PhD (in EE)

    • Hokkaido University, Japan

  • Webpages:

    • Current: http://web.media.mit.edu/~ishii/

    • Old:http://www.mediamatic.nl/whoiswho/ishii/

    • Publications:http://web.media.mit.edu/~ishii/publications.html


About the authors 2 2 l.jpg

Masaaki Ohkubo

Human Interface Laboratories, NTT, Japan

NTT Web Site: http://www.ntt.co.jp/index_e.html

TeamWorkStation Site: http://web.media.mit.edu/~ishii/TWS.html

About The Authors (2/2)


Gist of the paper l.jpg
Gist of the Paper

  • Introduces TeamWorkStation (TWS).

  • How to overcome the fusing problem of computer and desktop (tables, drawing space, pencil etc.).

  • New techniques for real-time shared work space design.


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Real-time Shared Workspace

  • Two approaches to realize RTSW:

    • Shared window based Groupware running on workstations

      • Often used with voice communication links

      • A computer based approach

      • Handle information stored in computer (by group)

      • Example: Cognoter, Dialogo etc.

    • Video and voice communication-based virtual shared spaces

      • Tele communication based approach

      • Can handle information outside of computers (faces. drawing surfaces etc)

      • Example: Media Space, CRUISER, VideoDraw etc.


Why tws l.jpg
Why TWS ?

  • In both approaches:

    • Information stored in computer and from desktop are dealt with separately.

    • Can never be fused

    • Users stuck with large discontinuity between computers and the desktop.

  • TWS overcomes this discontinuity by

    • Using video overlay techniques for fusing image

    • Providing “shareable desktop workspace”


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Key Idea in TWS (1/2)

  • Requirement for Face-to-face collaboration

    • Performing the role of shared drawing surface.

    • Users must be able to shuttle between shared work space and their individual work space.

  • TWS design philosophy:

    • “overlay of individual workspace images”

  • Advantage of overlay function in TWS:

    • This satisfies above two requirements

    • Created with a live video image synthesis techniques


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Key Idea in TWS (2/2)

3. Allows users to combine individual work space and drawing on overlaid image simultaneously.

  • TWS allows users to keep using their favorite tools even in shared environment.

  • Allows smooth transition between shared and individual environment (i.e. PC+Tabletop)


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Implementation of TWS

  • TWS environment provides-

    • A shareable computer screen

    • Live video and audio communication links for face-to-face conversation


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Components of TWS

  • Individual display

  • Shared display

  • Auto focus video camera

  • Wireless microphone and headphone

  • Small LCD display with speaker

  • CCD Camera


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System Architecture

  • Uses five different communication networks:

    • RGB Video network

    • NTSC Video network

    • Voice Network

    • Input device network

    • Data network (LAN)


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How overlay/fusing is done? (1/2)

  • RGB & NTSC network gather and distribute computer screen images, desk images and face images.

  • Overlay is done by using two devices:

    • Video composite equipment attached to NTSC video network.

    • Desktop video card installed in workstation

  • Overlaid images are distributed to shared screens or LCD display.


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How overlay/fusing is done? (2/2)

  • Face images are captured by auto focus video camera

  • Desk image is captured by CCD camera.

  • Face images can be displayed on either shareable screen or LCD display via the video network.


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Computer Sharing

  • Input device network supports connecting keyboard and mouse to the PC whose screen is shared in tele-screen mode.

  • It requires floor control mechanism.


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Data Networks

  • It is used for:

    • Remote control and voice switches

    • Ordinary file sharing

    • Shared printing

  • Switch control program is written in HyperCard


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Level and Modes of Collaboration

  • TWS supports three levels of collaboration and six modes of use.

  • It supports both overlaid and non-overlaid remote work space.

  • Users can choose the most suitable mode from these six modes and move from one mode to another as required.


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Experimental use of WS (1/2)

  • TWS development was started in May1989

  • From July 1989 author started using it for daily work like

    • Refining the designing of TWS itself

    • Writing papers

    • Daily communication


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Experimental use of WS (2/2)

  • Interesting results from experimental uses:

    • Flexibility of selection and movement among various collaboration mode is very important.

    • Unnecessary and time wasting printing, coping, file/memo distribution can be avoided and effectively done by TWS

    • Face-to-face conversation link increases system flexibility.

    • Among six modes, screen and desk overlay mode is most interesting and could be used in remote consultation application.


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Problems with overlay

  • The quality of video image is not sharp or stable.

  • Identifying the owners of the object (cursor,, draw object, window, icon etc.) on a overlaid screen is difficult when more than 3 screens are overlaid.

  • Since overlaid screen images are independent, scrolling of a document breaks the spatial relationship with the marks made on other screen.



Clearboard a seamless medium for shared drawing and conversation with eye contact l.jpg

ClearBoard: A Seamless Medium for Shared Drawing and Conversation With Eye Contact

-Hiroshi Ishii

-Minoru Kobayashi

Presented By:

Bikash Mandal


Citation detail23 l.jpg
Citation Detail Conversation With Eye Contact

  • Title: ClearBoard: A Seamless Medium for Shared Drawing and Conversation with Eye Contact.

  • Authors: Hiroshi Ishii and Minoru Kobayashi, NTT Human Interface Laboratory, Japan.

  • Citation: Ishii, H., and Kobayashi, M. (1992). ClearBoard: A Seamless Medium for Shared Drawing and Conversation with Eye Contact. Proceedings of CHI '92, ACM, pp. 525-532.

  • Reprinted in:Readings in GroupWare and Computer-Supported Cooperative Work: Assisting Human-Human Collaboration by Ronald M. Baecker on pp. 829-836.


About the authors 1 224 l.jpg

Hirosii Ishii Conversation With Eye Contact

Associate Professor

Media Arts and Sciences, Tangible Media Group, MIT Media Laboratory

BE,ME, PhD (in EE)

Hokkaido University, Japan

WebPages:

Current: http://web.media.mit.edu/~ishii/

Old:http://www.mediamatic.nl/whoiswho/ishii/

Publications:

http://web.media.mit.edu/~ishii/publications.html

About The Authors (1/2)


About the authors 2 225 l.jpg

Minoru Kobayashi Conversation With Eye Contact

NTT Human Computer lab, Kanazawa, Japan

Project Site

About The Authors (2/2)


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Objective of the Paper Conversation With Eye Contact

  • Introduces a novel shared drawing medium called ClearBoard.

  • It realizes two things:

    • A seamless shared drawing space

    • Eye contact to support real-time and remote collaboration by two users.

  • Develops a key metaphor: “Talking through and drawing on a transparent glass window”.

  • Uses “Drafter -mirror” architecture to implement the prototype.


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Lesson from Conversation With Eye ContactTeamWorkStation

  • Smooth transition between face-to-face conversation & shared drawing activities is essential in collaborative activities

  • In TeamWorkStation, there is seamsbetween image of participants and the shared drawing image.

  • Lack of eye contact is another problem in existing video conferencing system.

  • Eye contact plays an important role in face to-face conversation because “eyes are as eloquent as the tongue”.


Why clearboard l.jpg

Two problems of TeamWorkStation: Conversation With Eye Contact

Seams between windows

Lack of eye contact

ClearBoard solves both these problem

Why ClearBoard ?


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Previous Work (1/3) Conversation With Eye Contact

  • Video Tunnel

    • A kind of video phone

    • Supports eye contact using half mirror technique

    • Developed in EuroPARC

  • VideoWindow

    • Wall size screen that connects remote rooms to support informal communication

    • Developed in Bellcore.


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Previous Work (2/3) Conversation With Eye Contact

  • VideoDraw

    • Supports shared drawing activities using video.

    • Supports drawing on a transparent sheet attached to the video screen

    • Developed in Xerox PARC.

  • Commune

    • A shared drawing tool based on digitizer and multi user paint editor.

    • Developed in Xerox PARC.


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Previous Work (3/3) Conversation With Eye Contact

  • Video Whiteboard

    • Uses shadow of users to convey the gestures of collaborators.

    • Developed in Xerox PARC.

  • TeamWorkStation

    • Already seen


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Three Metaphors (1/2) Conversation With Eye Contact

  • Metaphor 1: “Talking in front of whiteboard”

    • Advantage: All participant can share the common board orientation.

    • Disadvantage: Hard to implement mechanism to coordinate shared space.

  • Metaphor 2: “Talking over a table”.

    • Advantage: Suitable for face to face communication

    • Disadvantage: The orientation becomes upside down for one member.


Three metaphors 2 2 l.jpg
Three Metaphors (2/2) Conversation With Eye Contact

  • New Metaphor: “Talking through and drawing on a transparent glass window”.

    • Advantages:

      • Participant can see partners eye easily

      • Switching of focus between drawing space and partners face requires less eye movement.

    • Disadvantage:

      • Participant can not share the common orientation (left & right) of drawing space.

    • Solution technique:

      • Using mirror reversing of video image.


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Design Requirement Conversation With Eye Contact

  • Direct drawing on the display screen must be supported.

  • Video image of a user must be taken through (behind) the screen surface (to achieve eye contact)

  • Common orientation of drawing space (top, bottom, left, right) must be shared at both sides.


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System Architecture Conversation With Eye Contact

  • They explored two alternatives for the system architecture:

    • Liquid Crystal Screen Architecture

    • Drafter-mirror architecture

  • These two architecture satisfies all the requirements for ClearBoard.


Liquid crystal screen architecture l.jpg

LCD switches between Conversation With Eye Contacttwo sates

Light scattering

Transparent

In state (1) the screen works as a rear projection screen

In state (2) users image is captured by video camera.

Liquid Crystal Screen Architecture


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Disadvantage of LCS Conversation With Eye Contact

  • Disadvantage:

    • Transition frequency of LCD depend on its size

    • Hard to achieve high frequency that can provide ease to human eye.

    • Image flickering is a problem

    • High cost of LCD

  • So they went for the second alternative- “Drafter-mirror”.


Drafter mirror architecture l.jpg

Terminal is tilted with 45 Conversation With Eye Contacto.

The video camera captures the drawing and the image of the user reflected by the half mirror.

This image is sent to other terminal through video network

This image projected on to partners screen from the rear

Drafter-mirror Architecture


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Experimental use of ClearBoard (1/2) Conversation With Eye Contact

  • Benefit of ClearBoard :

    • Users can easily achieve eye contact when needed.

    • Users often worked collaboratively to coordinate the limited shared drawing space.

    • It provides “gaze awareness” or “gaze tracking”


Experimental use of clearboard 1 240 l.jpg
Experimental use of ClearBoard (1/2) Conversation With Eye Contact

  • Problems of ClearBoard:

    • Clarity of the image

    • Erasing partners mark

    • Double hand image

    • Recording of work results.


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Thank you.. Conversation With Eye Contact


Beyond being there l.jpg

Beyond Being There Conversation With Eye Contact

-Jim Hollan

-Scott Stornetta

Presented by:

Bikash Mandal


Citation detail43 l.jpg
Citation Detail Conversation With Eye Contact

  • Title:

    • Beyond Being There.

  • Authors:

    • Jim Hollan, Scott Stornetta. Computer Graphics and Cognitive Science Research Group, Bellcore.

  • Citation:

    • Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems,1992 , Monterey, California, United States

      Reprinted in:

    • Readings in GroupWare and Computer-Supported Cooperative Work: Assisting Human-Human Collaboration by Ronald M. Baecker on pp. 842-848.


About the authors 1 244 l.jpg

Jim Hollan Conversation With Eye Contact

Professor, Department of Cognitive Science, University of California, San Diego

B.A. (1969), M.S. (1971), and Ph.D. (1973), University of Florida

Job History

Publications

About the Authors (1/2)


About the authors 2 245 l.jpg

Scott Stornetta Conversation With Eye Contact

Computer Graphics and Cognitive Science Research Group, Bellcore.

About the Authors (2/2)


Gist of the paper46 l.jpg
Gist of the Paper Conversation With Eye Contact

  • Discuss widespread held belief regarding the efficacy of imitating face to face communication in electronic media.

  • Discuss reasons for failing electronic communications

  • Investigate framework to explore for overcoming problem of electronic communications.


Being there observations 1 3 l.jpg
Being There- Conversation With Eye ContactObservations (1/3)

  • Audio/video medium is much closer to the audio only medium than it is to face to face communication.

  • Seems like improving audio/video technology should improve information richness close to face to face communication.


Being there observations 2 3 l.jpg
Being There- Conversation With Eye ContactObservations (2/3)

  • Several studies shows that:

    • “When you have choice between face to face and an imitation, no matter how good, it is natural to chose the real thing”.

  • Solution:

    • We must develop tools that go beyond being there.


Being there observations 3 3 l.jpg
Being There- Conversation With Eye ContactObservations (3/3)

  • Interesting analogy (Crutch and shoe):

    • Using crutch is fine with a broken leg but odd when leg is recovered.

    • Wearing a running shoe is a need to improve performance.

    • In telecommunication research we have been perhaps building crutches rather than shoes.


How to achieve beyond being there l.jpg
How to achieve Conversation With Eye ContactBeyond Being There

  • Approach in telecommunication:

    • A better way is to focus on comm part- not to the tele part of telecommunication.

  • E-mail communication improvement:

    • Authors suggest several projects in different directions

    • Authors also suggest hypothesis with each example project.


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Example Projects (1/6) Conversation With Eye Contact

  • Ephemeral Interest group

    • Idea: Create a mechanism that allows a short lived discussion to be attached to any object in a community’s electronic space.

    • Hypothesis: People using this system that are not present, rate themselves as more a part of the community than those who do not use it and are present.


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Example Projects (2/6) Conversation With Eye Contact

  • Meeting Others

    • Idea: Providing users with a sort of electronic persona that provides people with access to information about others.

    • Hypothesis: Allowing low cost electronic access to information about others will provide an effective way of learning.


Example projects 3 6 l.jpg
Example Projects (3/6) Conversation With Eye Contact

  • Anonymity

    • Idea: Allowing anonymous exchanges of message.

    • Hypothesis: Will encourage people to discuss issues that they are reluctant to discuss in face to face encounters.


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Example Projects (4/6) Conversation With Eye Contact

  • Semi-synchronous Discussion

    • Idea: allow semi synchronous mechanism of communication.

    • Hypothesis: Will encourage a greater range of responsesthan the normal asynchronous or synchronous mechanism.


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Example Projects (5/6) Conversation With Eye Contact

  • Beyond face to face

    • Idea: Addition of some kind of auditory paper to natural language itself by providing:

      • Clarity:Make things in spoken language clearer than they are today. (possible use of American Sign Language)

      • Feedback: Use shared visual spaces.

      • Archive: Make system tightly integrated to spoken interaction.


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Example Projects (6/6) Conversation With Eye Contact

  • Hypothesis: Face to face conversations will be rated as having higher social presence.


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