Conquering space and domesticating sam patch expansion and the market revolution
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Conquering Space and Domesticating Sam Patch: Expansion and The Market Revolution. Discuss the impact of territorial expansion on national unity between 1800 and 1850. (97)

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  • Discuss the impact of territorial expansion on national unity between 1800 and 1850. (97)

  • The Jacksonian Period (1824-1848) has been celebrated as the era of the “common man.” To what extent did the period live up to its characterization? Consider the following in your response: Economic development, Politics, Reform movements (01)

  • In what ways did developments in transportation bring about economic and social change in the US in the period 1820 to 1860? (03)

  • Developments in transportation, rather than in manufacturing and agriculture, sparked American economic growth in the first half of the nineteenth century. Assess the validity of this statement. (89)

  • In the period 1815 to 1860, improvements in transportation and increased inter-regional trade should have united Americans, but instead produced sectional division and finally disunion. Discuss with reference to the impact of improved transportation and increased inter-regional trade on the Northeast (New England and Middle Atlantic states), the South, and the West. (80)

  • Discuss the impact of the “transportation revolution,” 1820 – 1860, on the U.S. (73)


I population growth and westward expansion l.jpg
I. Population Growth and Westward Expansion unity between 1800 and 1850. (97)

  • Am pop. doubled every 23 years

    • 1790: 4 million 1810: 7 million

  • Overwhelmingly agrarian: to maintain standard of living, had to improve ag. tech or double acreage

    • Tech not keeping pace westward movement


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  • Most migrants native born, lower middle class period before

  • Tend to move due West (NE to Midwest, S to lower Midwest and SW)

  • Fed. gov wanted rapid settlement for $: required full payment in cash speculators buy up vast tracts

  • Squatters doing most of farming pre-emption law (1841): allows squatters to buy at low cost


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Images of Life period before

  • 1) “Little House on the Prairie”: independent, self-sufficient, isolated homesteads but brought together for communal activities

  • 2) Clint Eastwood: instability, constant motion no real community; fed by “strip-farming”: belief that resources unlimited; general rudeness and violence

    • Reality somewhere in between: most worked/wanted to replicate old lives


Ii dispossession of indians l.jpg
II. Dispossession of Indians period before

A. Legacy of War of 1812

  • Collapse of Tecumseh’s pan-Indianism (Battle of Thames, War of 1812) Indians no longer able to effectively resist white settlement

  • 1817-18: First Seminole War: Andrew Jackson invades Florida to attack Seminoles Adams-Onis Treaty ceding Florida to US

    • AJ exceeds order: hunts down Indians


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B. Five Civilized Tribes and the Trail of Tears period before

  • Creek, Choctaw, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Seminole: largely assimilated

  • Farmers, built schools, developed alphabet, published newspapers, conversion, tribal Constitution based on US

  • Integration into market economy dependence (debt + alcohol) facilitates removal (sell lands, socio-cultural disruption, pop decline)

    • War, disease, malnutrition 50% decline


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  • Logic of Fed Indian policy should have left alone, but own valuable lands + gov’t protects/supports whites (even illegal settlers)

  • 1830: Georgia throws them out

  • AJ: Removal Bill of 1830: resettle all tribes west of Miss. racial rationale

    • 1824: Monroe suggests removal as protection Indians

    • Not just AJ: before + after


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  • Cherokees sue valuable lands + gov’t protects/supports whites (even illegal settlers) Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831) and Worcester v. Georgia (1832): Marshall rules Indians cannot be removed

  • AJ: “John Marshall has made his decision: now let him enforce it.”

  • 1831-1838: Indians removed

  • 1838: Cherokee Trail of Tears: forced march to Oklahoma ¼ die

  • 1844: 3 of 4 Indians removed to West


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III. Transportation Revolution valuable lands + gov’t protects/supports whites (even illegal settlers)

  • Poor transportation obstacle to migration: cost transport wheat KY to NYC 3x price of sale

    • Cheaper ship PhilaLondon than PittsburghPhila

  • 1815: John C. Calhoun (SC): “Let us conquer space”

  • 4 Major stages


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A. Turnpikes valuable lands + gov’t protects/supports whites (even illegal settlers)

  • Paved roads, built by states + private companies

  • Most connected Eastern cities

    • But, National Road

  • Poor quality, expensive


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B. Steamboats valuable lands + gov’t protects/supports whites (even illegal settlers)

  • Esp. impacted Miss + tributaries (Ohio)

  • Transport at 1/10 cost flatboats

  • Dangerous: snags, explosions, run aground


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C. Canals valuable lands + gov’t protects/supports whites (even illegal settlers)

  • Boom 1820s + ’30s

    • Erie Canal (1825): Buffalo to Albany; NY Gov. DeWitt Clinton

    • Major expenditures by states: 3/4 of $200 million from 1815-1840s; far more than Fed

  • Cost reduced 20¢ to 1¢ (1 ton Buffalo NYC)

  • Eventually water system linking NYC to New Orleans


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  • Enormous impacts valuable lands + gov’t protects/supports whites (even illegal settlers)

    • Canal towns: industry, pop. growth, social change, alcohol

    • Midwest: greater access resources + needs eastern industry +tech  deforestation

  • Canal boom short lived: overtaken by…


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D. Railroads valuable lands + gov’t protects/supports whites (even illegal settlers)

  • 1830: National system begun Baltimore and Ohio RxR (13 miles)

  • 1840: 3328 miles (2x track in Europe)

  • 1850: 9000 miles (majority in N)

  • Biggest jump transport exp. (speed) in Am. history: 4 mph to 40/50

  • Annihilated space + time (time zones)

  • Uniquely adapted to size US


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IV. Market Revolution and the Machine in the Garden valuable lands + gov’t protects/supports whites (even illegal settlers)

A. Agrarian Revolution

  • Transport rev. bound growing nation econ. transformation: western farmers switch subsistence to commercial: specialization, orient to profit, mechanize

    • NE + Mid Atlantic: terrain unable use machines move West, move cities, or dairy + fruit farmers

    • 1820: 1/3 all food for market; 1850: 50+%


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  • South: cotton gin (1793) + northern industry (1820s) valuable lands + gov’t protects/supports whites (even illegal settlers) cotton

  • South most tied inter’l markets, but least affected internally: depended on outsiders for marketing + financing, capital tied up in land and esp. slaves colonial economy

  • Southerners profit motivated, but slavery made “peculiar system”


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Ambivalence to Revolution: valuable lands + gov’t protects/supports whites (even illegal settlers)

  • Huck Finn: steamboat destroys idyllic life on raft

  • Escape to Walden Pond: Henry David Thoreau and Transcendentalists

  • Death knell of Jeffersonian yeoman farmers

    • 1800: 6 of 7 workers farmers

    • 1860: 50% farmers

    • 1990: 1.6%

  • But, “machine happy”: boom in “labor saving devices” (mechanical apple peelers)


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B. The American System valuable lands + gov’t protects/supports whites (even illegal settlers)

  • “Borrowed” early British technology

    • 1790 Samuel Slater textile mill

  • Eli Whitney: precision machinery for interchangeable parts (firearms, cotton gin) American system: machines make machines consumer items (clocks, watches, sewing machines)


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  • Mechanized industry valuable lands + gov’t protects/supports whites (even illegal settlers) social restructuring: replace “putting out” system w/centralized factory

  • Francis Cabot Lowell (1813), power loom (water): Lowell, Mass.

    • Boston Manufacturing Company: Waltham, Mass.

  • 1817: 4 million yards cotton cloth; 1840: 323 million

  • 1840: 80,000 workers (50+% women)

    • Huge impact on South King Cotton


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C. Taming Sam Patch valuable lands + gov’t protects/supports whites (even illegal settlers)

  • Difficulty of factory: pre-industrial sense of time

    • 1st clocks only had hour hand; 1830s 1st mass-produced home clocks

  • Rhythmic, seasonal, nature, task not clock Saint Monday

  • Rich variety of entertainments (that then affected work): Alcohol, dancing, athletics, horse races, circuses, magic, balloons, Sam Patch

    • Left work when these options available


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  • Patch a highly-skilled mill worker, jumped off of things: bridges, flag poles, waterfalls (Niagara twice)

  • Working class hero: “possession of an art made a man independent and useful and, therefore, the sovereign equal of any other man”

  • Middle class threat: reason to fear full democracy, undermined beauty of nature (Hudson River School), passed laws against jumping

    • 6 November 1829: Upper Falls of the Genesee in Rochester, New York (100 ft), accompanied by a pet bear

    • Friday 13th: same jump, no bear, dies, age 30


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  • Changed through: incentives + institutions: church bridges, flag poles, waterfalls (Niagara twice) (2nd Great Awakening: temperance, hard work, perseverance), schools (tech., time discipline), local gov’t (police)

  • 1827, Lynn, MA: Society for the Promotion of Industry, Frugality, and Temperance: hiring pact, boycotts, by-laws, truant officers, ministers alter personality entire class to further capitalist goals

  • Successful? 2 measures: 1) liquor and 2) babies

    • 1800-1860: avg. # kids 7 5.2

    • Less sex (no new birth control), less alcohol, kids econ drain in industrial society, some honestly converted


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