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Community ecology. Koala Conga Line…. Community- groups of interacting populations. Primate behavior shaped by interactions with other primate species. Can be potentially influenced by interactions with other organisms.

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Community ecology

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Community ecology l.jpg

Community ecology

Koala Conga Line….


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Community- groups of interacting populations

  • Primate behavior shaped by interactions with other primate species

  • Can be potentially influenced by interactions with other organisms


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Niche- a way to define the role an organism plays in its environment- multidimensional

Sympatry- when two organisms share a habitat

Congeneric- within the same genus (taxonomic category)

Some definitions


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When similar species share...

  • One may go extinct

  • There may be evidence of behavioral character displacement (when one species shifts its niche)

  • Share if

    • Resources are not limited

    • There is an area where they don’t overlap

      (physical and dietary)


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Ways to look at community

  • Trophic structure chart (11.1- coursepak)

    • Example: plants eaten by hippo, hippo eaten by hyenas, hyenas eaten by lions, lions eaten by vultures.

    • Note trend in population size for each category

    • Primate/plant interactions at the bottom

    • Primate impact on leaf

      biomass (1%) compared

      to insects (15%)


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Ways to look at community

  • Biomass of everything (coursepak- Fig 11.2)

  • Biomass of mammals (coursepak Fig 11.1)

  • Body weight representation (Robinson graph handout)

  • Note- animals make up small part of community

  • mammals make up an even smaller part

  • Primates very small!


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Ways to look at community

  • Guilds-animals that occupy similar niches (role played in environment)- use resources in similar ways despite being very different organisms.

    • Figure 14.4 - Avian guilds (in coursepak)

      • Note differences between forests

      • Note how partitioned


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Example 1- Howling monkeys and leaf cutter ants


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Ants and Howlers

  • Both eat tremendous amount of leaves

  • But only overlap on 7 out of 40 plant species

  • Howlers, majority of diet New leaves

  • Ants almost entirely eat Mature leaves


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Example 2- Howlers and Sloths

  • Can have up to 80% overlap in diet.

  • But sloths eat little (lower BMR)


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Example 3- Malaysian Fruit eaters


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Malayan Fruit feeders

  • Primates eat unripe fruits, hornbills eat ripe ones

  • Primates feed in upper canopy along with 3 or so squirrel species

  • Squirrels eat seeds, primates fruit flesh

  • Primates supplement with leaves, birdds with insects or other fruits.


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Coevolution

  • Between plants and animals

  • A relationship developes between two organisms such that, as they interact with each other over time, each exerts a selection pressure on the other.

  • Evolution of each becomes interdependent on that interaction


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“positive relationships”

Seed dispersal

Pollination

“Negative relationships”

Seed predation

Some primate examples


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