China. People’s Republic of China. World’s most populous nation (1,273,111,290) World’s second largest economy after the United States (purchasing power parity: $ 4.5 trillion) Oldest continuous (and self-conscious) civilization in the world.
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1. More than two millenia of strong rule under a single ruler (First Emperor unified China and *ended feudalism in 221 B.C.E.). Entrenched beliefs on that China can remain united only under a unified, strong, and centralized power. Unitary state.
2. Inventors of Bureaucracy (China had the most developed pre-modern bureaucratic organization. Recruitment of officials through exams. Well organized but not large ≈ 20,000)
3. Confucian tradition of moral governance (development of groups of “gentlemen” who could judge and decide in a wise and moral way). Legitimacy of Confucianism, stable and well governed society
≈ (pre-colonial) Mexico
(Period of disunion 221-589)
1911-1949 Chinese Civil War
Kuomintang government (1920-25)
Sponsored by the Communist International
1931 Japanese invasion
-Insisted on the value of research but ignored reality
Good Principles:Bad Principles:
Sinification of Marxism
Legislative: National People’s Congress (NPC) (supposedly elected every five years, meets once a year and it is the highest authority on paper) (increasingly active role in recent years, it has reduced bureaucratic apparatuses and organized Committees)
Tensions between an emerging society and a still-closed political system
(Protests in Tiananmen Square in 1989 left over 700 deaths)
Need to create new consensuses and ideas (revival of nationalism and Confucianism)