CAN WHALING BE MANAGED TO PROTECT WHALES AND WHALERS?. Judith E. Zeh Chair of the Scientific Committee (SC) of the International Whaling Commission (IWC) 1999-2002. Research Professor, Statistics University of Washington Seattle, Washington, USA. My presentation style:
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Judith E. Zeh
Chair of the Scientific Committee(SC) of the
International Whaling Commission(IWC)
University of Washington
Seattle, Washington, USA
My presentation style:
Overheads with words and equations!
Thanks for pictures from
Extinction is forever…
Unless you use…
Christmas cards and calendar pictures fromSeiji Ohsumi and Hiroshi HatanakaFormer and current Director-General, ICRThe Institute of Cetacean Research, Tokyo, Japan
Minke Whale in the Ross Sea
The Bowhead Whale, Special Publication Number 2 of the Society for Marine Mammalogy. 1993. Editors J.J. Burns,J.J. Montague and C.J. Cowles.
Figure 1.2. Bowhead whale in scattered ice in the Beaufort Sea. Photo by
for U.S. Minerals Management Service.
Bangudae petroglyphs, Ulsan, Korea
Below, remains of structures made from bowhead bones, Wales, Alaska. Photo by I.I. Krupnik. Right, towing a whale to the shorefast ice for butchering and pulling onto the ice. Photos by J.C. George.
Also long traditions! Below, 1773 picture of whaling station, Hizen, Japan. Right, right whale being harpooned off Ikitsuki Misaki. Lower right, 1997 whaling boat race, Muroto City, western Japan (from ISANA, Oct. 1997).
Hauling a fin whale up the slipway
Factory ship Jan Wellem at anchor with catcher boats alongside
ScheduleIWCestablished in 1946 by the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling, signed by 14 whaling nations.
…the history of whaling has seen over-fishing of one area … and of one whale species after another… convention to provide for the proper conservation of whale stocks and thus make possible the orderly development of the whaling industry…
Precise regulations governing whaling operations
Require ¾ majority vote
The blue whale story involves trade-offs:
D.G. Chapman. 1972. The Plight of the Whales. pp. 84-91 in Statistics: a guide to the unknown. Edited by J.M. Tanur et al.
1931 1947 1960
1961: IWC appointed Committee of Three scientists (Chapman, Allen, Holt) from non-whaling nations to work with SC to determine size of Antarctic stocks and safe catch limits.
Reported to IWC in 1963.
1 blue whale =
2 fin whales =
2.5 humpbacks =6 sei
MSY rate density-dependent population dynamics model:
Age at sexual maturity
Initial population size
0 Blue whales
2,244 MinkesNew Management Procedure (NMP)
IMS = >72% catch <MSY
SMS = 54-72% catch <<MSY
PS < = 54% catch = 0
Designed to bring stocks to optimum level density-dependent population dynamics model:
Protected stocks at 54% initial
Took power away from politicians
Assumed near-perfect knowledge of dynamics of all whale stocks (MSYR, MSYL, K)
SC couldn’t agree on stock classifications or catch limits except for PS stocks clearly in need of protectionNMP adopted 1975 – not all bad!
Avoid extinction of cetacean
Do not affect profitability
IWC does manage subsistence whaling! Adopted Bowhead SLA, part of Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Management Procedure (AWMP)
Chris Clark records bowhead calls
A visual census perch near Point Barrow, Alaska, used in 1984
AWS estimates: 10,500 (CV 13%) in 2001
Bowhead SLA adopted 2002
First Implementation Review will occur in 2007; focus on whether single stock
Being taken by whalers not the only threat! Entanglement in fishing gear (below) and ship strikes (left) cause deaths in the most endangered populations, e.g. North Atlantic right whale below.
> based on monitoring abundance, catches; > tested over plausible range of uncertainties.