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Applying EEG to the Study of Performance Enhancement in Sports . Tsung-Min Hung National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan. Outline. Basic idea of optimal mental functioning Descriptive studies on EEG & motor performance Interventional studies. Characteristics of EEG psychophysiology.

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Applying eeg to the study of performance enhancement in sports l.jpg

Applying EEG to the Study of Performance Enhancement in Sports

Tsung-Min Hung

National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan


Outline l.jpg
Outline

  • Basic idea of optimal mental functioning

  • Descriptive studies on EEG & motor performance

  • Interventional studies


Characteristics of eeg psychophysiology l.jpg
Characteristics of EEG psychophysiology

  • Noninvasiveness

  • Objective

  • Real time measurement of behavior

  • High temporal resolution


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Subjective Experience of Peak Performance

  • no fear of failure

  • no thinking of performance

  • total immersion in activity

  • narrow focus of attention

  • effortless performance

  • feeling of complete control

  • time/space disorientation

  • involuntary experience


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Psychomotor efficiency hypothesis

  • A reduction in the activity of nonessential cortical regions is characteristic of skilled motor performance (Hatfield & Hillmans, 2001).


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Precision sports

  • Golf

  • Rifle/pistol shooting

  • Archery

  • Basketball free throw

  • Dart throw

  • Bowling

  • Cue sports


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Classical study

  • Hatfield, Landers, & Ray’s (1984) classical study on shooting:

    1.Subject: 17 elite rifle shooters

    2.Psychophysiological measures: 7.5

    seconds of EEG alpha power prior to

    trigger pull

    3.Findings: ↑ alpha power at the left

    hemisphere, right remains the same


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Interpretation

Alpha implies an idling state of the brain:

Higher alpha suggests inhibition of the left

brain verbal-analytical activity (e.g. Self

talk) and a shift to the right brain visual-

spatial activity.


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Signs of cortical adaptation

  • Expert-novice comparison:

  • Haufler et al. (2000) found less activation for expert than the novice shooters at all site. The difference was more pronounced in the left central-parietal-temporal region.


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Expert

Novice


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Supportive evidence 2

  • Expert-novice comparison:

  • Hung et al (2008) found lower dimension in EEG of expert shooter than novice

  • EEG dimension negatively correlate with shooting performance in expert shooters


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Supportive evidence 3

  • Skilled-Novice comparison on FmΘ(Lin et al, 2009)

  • Elite-preelite comparison on Coherence(Deeny et al, 2003)

  • Learning studies(Landers et al, 1994; Kerick et al, 2004)


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Intraindividual performance variation

  • Loze et al. (2001) found higher alpha at left temporal and occipital region of the brain is associated with better shooting performance

  • Wu et al. (2007) found lower EEG coherence between frontal midline and other associative cortex in successful basketball free throw.


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  • Choke

  • Paralysis by analysis


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Perturbation by stress

  • (Chen et al, 2005)





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Can we help athletes control their brain activity?

  • Yes

  • Neurofeedback studies

  • Lander et al.(1991)-Archery

  • Lin(2004)-Archery

  • Wang & Hung (2006)-Pistol shooting


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Conclusion

  • The existing evidences suggest skilled motor performance has it’s psychophysiological signature

  • EEG psychophysiological approach provides ways to understand the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the optimal mental states.

  • The approach also provides a way to help athletes control the mental states that leads to better performance



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