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Animal Adaptations. What is ecology?. The study of the interactions that take place among organisms and their environment. Adaptations. How do adaptations help animals survive in their environment?.

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Animal Adaptations

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Animal Adaptations


What is ecology?

  • The study of the interactions that take place among organisms and their environment


Adaptations


How do adaptations help animals survive in their environment?

  • An adaptation is a body part or behavior that helps an animal survive in a particular environment.

  • Adaptation can help an animal breathe, catch food, or hide.

  • All animals are adapted to live in certain habitats.

  • Animals that cannot adapt will die out.


body part or behavior that helps an animal survive in a particular environment.

help an animal breathe, catch food, or hide.

adapted to live in certain habitats.


We can separate adaptations into two categories:

Physical

Adaptations

AND

Behavioral


body part or behavior that helps an animal survive in a particular environment.

help an animal breathe, catch food, or hide.

adapted to live in certain habitats.

Physical

Behavioral


  • Physical adaptations are body structures that allow an animal to find and consume food, defend itself, and to reproduce its species.

  • Physical adaptations help an animal survive in its environment.

Hey! I’m a walking stick. I look just like a stick you’d find on the ground.

© A. Weinberg


body part or behavior that helps an animal survive in a particular environment.

help an animal breathe, catch food, or hide.

adapted to live in certain habitats.

Physical

Behavioral

body structures that allow an animal to find and consume food, defend itself, and to reproduce its species.

help an animal survive in its environment


Physical adaptation

Camouflage (use of color in a surrounding)

The chameleon can change its color to match its surroundings. Can you do that?


body part or behavior that helps an animal survive in a particular environment.

help an animal breathe, catch food, or hide.

adapted to live in certain habitats.

Physical

Behavioral

body structures that allow an animal to find and consume food, defend itself, and to reproduce its species.

help an animal survive in its environment

Camouflage

use of color in a surrounding


Physical adaptation

Mimicry

(looking or sounding like another living organism)

The Viceroy butterfly uses mimicry to look like the Monarch butterfly. Can you tell them apart?

I’m the Viceroy!

Not poisonous

Poisonous

I’m the Monarch!


body part or behavior that helps an animal survive in a particular environment.

help an animal breathe, catch food, or hide.

adapted to live in certain habitats.

Physical

Behavioral

body structures that allow an animal to find and consume food, defend itself, and to reproduce its species.

help an animal survive in its environment

Mimicry

(looking or sounding like another living organism)

Camouflage

use of color in a surrounding


Physical adaptation

Chemical defenses (like venom, ink, sprays)


body part or behavior that helps an animal survive in a particular environment.

help an animal breathe, catch food, or hide.

adapted to live in certain habitats.

Physical

Behavioral

body structures that allow an animal to find and consume food, defend itself, and to reproduce its species.

help an animal survive in its environment

Mimicry

(looking or sounding like another living organism)

Camouflage

Chemicaldefenses (like venom, ink, sprays)

use of color in a surrounding


Physical adaptations

Body coverings & parts (claws, beaks, feet, armor plates, skulls, teeth)

The elephant’s trunkis a physical adaptation that helps it to clean itself, eat, drink, and to pick things up.


body part or behavior that helps an animal survive in a particular environment.

help an animal breathe, catch food, or hide.

adapted to live in certain habitats.

Physical

Behavioral

body structures that allow an animal to find and consume food, defend itself, and to reproduce its species.

help an animal survive in its environment

Mimicry

(looking or sounding like another living organism)

Body coverings & parts

(claws, beaks, feet, armor plates, skulls, teeth)

Camouflage

Chemicaldefenses (like venom, ink, sprays)

use of color in a surrounding


Behavioral Adaptations allow animals to respond to life needs.


body part or behavior that helps an animal survive in a particular environment.

help an animal breathe, catch food, or hide.

adapted to live in certain habitats.

Physical

Behavioral

body structures that allow an animal to find and consume food, defend itself, and to reproduce its species.

help an animal survive in its environment

allow animals to respond to life needs.

Mimicry

(looking or sounding like another living organism)

Body coverings & parts

(claws, beaks, feet, armor plates, skulls, teeth)

Camouflage

Chemicaldefenses (like venom, ink, sprays)

use of color in a surrounding


Behavioral Adaptations are animals’ actions.

Remember that Physical Adaptations are body structures.

Each organism has unique methods of adapting to its environment by means of different actions.


body part or behavior that helps an animal survive in a particular environment.

help an animal breathe, catch food, or hide.

adapted to live in certain habitats.

Physical

Behavioral

body structures that allow an animal to find and consume food, defend itself, and to reproduce its species.

help an animal survive in its environment

allow animals to respond to life needs.

animals’ actions

Mimicry

(looking or sounding like another living organism)

Body coverings & parts

(claws, beaks, feet, armor plates, skulls, teeth)

Camouflage

Chemicaldefenses (like venom, ink, sprays)

use of color in a surrounding


Homeostasis

  • Maintenance of constant internal conditions in the face of a varying external environment.

  • Examples:

    • The thickening of fur in winter.

    • The seeking of shade in heat.

    • The production of more red blood cells at high altitude.


Maintenance of constant internal conditions in the face of a varying external environment


Endotherms vs. Ectotherms


Maintenance of constant internal conditions in the face of a varying external environment

Ectotherms

Endotherms


Endotherms

  • Endotherms are animals that warm their bodies mainly from their own metabolism.

    • We call these animals warm-blooded.

    • Maintain a constant body temperature regardless of changes in the surrounding temperature


Maintenance of constant internal conditions in the face of a varying external environment

Ectotherms

Endotherms

animals that warm their bodies mainly from their own metabolism

Body temp the same regardless of weather

Warm-blooded


How do endothems adapt?

  • Fat layers, fur, and feathers insulate the body and retain heat.

  • Shivering muscles contract to increase body heat.

  • Some animals hibernate. Hibernation enables animals to survive long periods of cold and lack of food.

  • Canines, like this Brittany, use panting as a means of temperature regulation.


Maintenance of constant internal conditions in the face of a varying external environment

Ectotherms

Endotherms

How do endothems adapt?

animals that warm their bodies mainly from their own metabolism

Fat layers, fur, and feathers

Body temp the same regardless of weather

Shivering Muscles

Warm-blooded

Hibernation


Ectotherms

  • Ectotherms are animals that warm their bodies by absorbing heat from their surroundings.

    • We call these animals cold-blooded

    • Body temperature fluctuates with changes in the surrounding temperature.


Maintenance of constant internal conditions in the face of a varying external environment

Ectotherms

Endotherms

How do endothems adapt?

animals that warm their bodies by absorbing heat from their surroundings

animals that warm their bodies mainly from their own metabolism

Fat layers, fur, and feathers

Cold-blooded

Body temp the same regardless of weather

Shivering Muscles

Body Temp changes with weather

Warm-blooded

Hibernation


How do ectotherms adapt?

  • Most marine fish and invertebrates, however, live in water that stays the same temperature.

  • When the weather is warm, they become active. They slow down when the temperature drops.

    • To warm up, reptiles find sunny places, and stretch out for maximum exposure. If it gets too warm, lizards alternate between sun and shade.

    • Amphibians warm up by moving into the sun or diving into warm water. They cool off by entering the shade.


Maintenance of constant internal conditions in the face of a varying external environment

Ectotherms

Endotherms

How do ectotherms adapt?

How do endothems adapt?

animals that warm their bodies by absorbing heat from their surroundings

animals that warm their bodies mainly from their own metabolism

weather is warm, they become active. They slow down when the temperature drops.

Fat layers, fur, and feathers

Cold-blooded

Body temp the same regardless of weather

Shivering Muscles

Body Temp changes with weather

Warm-blooded

warm up by moving into the sun or diving into warm water

cool off by entering the shade

Hibernation


Example of Adaptation

  • The shape of an animal’s teeth is related to its diet.

    • Herbivores, such as deer, have many molars for chewing tough grass and plants.

    • Carnivores, such as lions, have sharp canines to kill and tear meat.


Who experiences adaptations?

  • All species have experienced adaptation and will continue to slowly adapt as the next generations are born.

  • We will identify certain species from each of these groups and the reasons for their success:

    • Mammals

    • Birds

    • Reptiles

    • Amphibians


Mammals

  • Endothermic or

    warm-blooded

  • All have some type of “hair”

    • Some are very specialized, such as white polar bear fur

  • Method of locomotion

  • Care for young


Birds

  • Leg Length

    • Roseate Spoonbill (top right)

  • Foot Webbing

    • Laughing Gull (top left)

  • Beak Shape

    • Long Billed Curlew (bottom)


Reptiles

  • Ectothermic or cold- blooded

  • Scales

  • Some undergo hibernation and estivation

  • Lay eggs on land

  • Leg structure and position


Amphibians

  • Ectothermic

  • Lay eggs in water

  • Partially of fully webbed feet

  • Have lungs or can absorb oxygen through their skin


Animal Defense

  • Some animals use these methods of defense to protect themselves:

    • Camouflage

      • Snake

    • Mimicry

      • Mexican Milk Snake

    • Bright colors

      • Skunk and Poison Arrow Frog

    • “Hair” projections

      • Hedgehog quills

      • Deer Antlers


Adaptation Applications: Lions

  • Why are the eyes of a lion set in front of the head rather than on the sides?

  • Answer: Eyes in front of the head allow for depth perception and ability to judge distances when hunting.


Adaptation Applications: Lions

  • What is the purpose of the mane on a male lion?What is the reason for the lion’s color?

  • A thick mane helps the male to appear larger and serves as protection for the throat. The tawny brown coat color camouflages the animal and young among vegetation.


Adaptation Applications: Giraffe

  • Why are giraffes able to go for long periods of time without water?

  • Answer: Giraffes drink water when available, but can go weeks without it. They rely on morning dew and the water content of their food.


Adaptation Applications: Giraffe

  • How are their long necks adapted to their lifestyle?

  • Answer: This extra length is thought to have evolved to help the giraffe spot predators and other giraffes in the distance. Interestingly, giraffes and humans have the same number of vertebrate in their necks.


Adaptation Applications: Zebras

  • How do zebras defend themselves?

  • Capable of running up to 40 mph. Zebras defend themselves by kicking and biting. Coloration also plays a role in evading predators, although theories have not reached an agreement.


Resources

  • This PowerPoint is partially adapted from Ms. Weinberg. The original PowerPoint can be viewed at

    • http://www.quia.com/files/quia/users/amiew/Animal-Adaptations-PPT

  • It is also partially adapted from an animal adaptation powerpoint created by City of Corpus Christi Museum of Science and History the original can be viewed at

    • http://www.ccmuseumedres.com/Animal%20Adaptations.ppt

  • http://science.jrank.org/pages/6750/Temperature-Regulation-Internally-heated-animals.html

  • http://science.jrank.org/pages/6749/Temperature-Regulation-Externally-heated-animals.html


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