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Pearl Harbor and US entry into the War. "Arsenal of Democracy" . Roosevelt concluded a Destroyers-for-Bases treaty with the besieged British He appealed to the nation to provide more material support to Great Britain .

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"Arsenal of Democracy"

  • Roosevelt concluded a Destroyers-for-Bases treaty with the besieged British

  • He appealed to the nation to provide more material support to Great Britain .

  • Roosevelt argued that the best way to stay out of the war and preserve national security is to aid the Allied forces, establishing the United States as the "arsenal of democracy."


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Roosevelt Pledges Aide to England

  • In the spring of 1940, the France, Belgium, Holland, Luxembourg, Denmark, & Norway fell to the Nazi blitzkrieg. Now, only England stood before Hitler & victory. Meanwhile, in the United States, debates continued about whether to assist the English or not.


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Destroyers for Bases Deal

  • The United States government, sympathetic to the British cause, was reluctant to join the war because:

    • American public opinion was overwhelmingly isolationist

    • The Neutrality Act banned the shipment of arms from the U.S. toany combatant nation.

  • Franklin D. Roosevelt was further constrained by upcoming elections where his opponents portrayed him as being pro-war.

  • Roosevelt permits the dispatch of fifty old American destroyers to the British in exchange for bases Newfoundland and Bermuda.

This map shows the location of bases.


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The Atlantic Charter

  • In July 1941, Roosevelt and Churchill met to issue a joint declaration on the purposes of the war against fascism.

  • The Atlantic Charter provided the criteria for WWII.

  • The Soviet Union was originally going to sign, but was unhappy with the terms, as was Churchill who eventually agreed.

  • Roosevelt truly believed in the possibility of a world governed by democratic processes, with an international organization serving as an arbiter of disputes and protector of the peace.

Churchill and Roosevelt signing the Atlantic Charter.


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US-Japan Communications

  • 26 November 1941 a letter was sent from the US to Japan stating the principles governing their policies toward the situation in the Far East.

  • A second message was sent from the President to the Emperor of Japan on December 6.

  • On 7 December 1941 the Japanese representatives arrived at the office of the Secretary of State.

  • The Japanese response was not diplomatically accepted.

  • Secretary Hull told the ambassador:

    • I must say that in all my conversations with you during the last nine months I have never uttered one word of untruth. This is borne out absolutely by the record. In all my 50 years of public service I have never seen a document that was more crowded with infamous falsehoods and distortions - infamous falsehoods and distortions on a scale so huge that I never imagined until today that any Government on this planet was capable of uttering them.

Secretary Hull


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A Date That Will Live In Infamy

  • The 7 December 1941 Japanese raid on Pearl Harbor was one of the great defining moments in history.

  • Eighteen months earlier, President Franklin D. Roosevelt had transferred the United States Fleet to Pearl Harbor as a presumed deterrent to Japanese aggression.

  • The Japanese military, deeply engaged in the seemingly endless war it had started against China in mid-1937, badly needed oil and other raw materials.

  • In July 1941 the Western powers effectively halted trade with Japan. From then on, as the desperate Japanese schemed to seize the oil and mineral-rich East Indies and Southeast Asia, a Pacific war was virtually inevitable.

  • The U.S. Fleet's Pearl Harbor base was reachable by an aircraft carrier force, and the Japanese Navy secretly sent one across the Pacific with greater aerial striking power than had ever been seen on the World's oceans.

  • Within a short time five of eight battleships at Pearl Harbor were sunk or sinking, with the rest damaged. Several other ships and most Hawaii-based combat planes were also knocked out and over 2400 Americans were dead.

USS Arizona during attack at Pearl Harbor


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US Air War

The war in the air was a major factor in the Allied victory. This map shows the bombing sites in Europe.


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Flying Fortress

The B-17 or "Flying Fortress" was perhaps the most important bomber of the war.


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D-Day

  • June 6, 1944, 160,000 Allied Troops landed long a 50-mile stretch of heavily-fortified French coastline to fight Nazi Germany on the beaches of Normandy, France.

  • General Dwight D. Eisenhower called the operation a crusade in which “we will accept nothing less than full victory.”

  • More than 5,000 Ships and 13,000 aircraft supported the D-Day invasion, and the Allies gained a foot- hold in Normandy.

  • The D-Day cost was high -more than 9,000 Allied Soldiers were killed or wounded -- but more than 100,000 Soldiers began the march across Europe to defeat Hitler.


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The Course of the War

The European Theater


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The Course of the War

The Pacific Theater


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Germans Surrender Amid Ruins

On May 7, 1945, the war in Europe came to end with Germany's unconditional surrender in Rheims, France


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V-J Day

  • On August 15, 1945, Japanese Emperor Hirohito surrendered to the Allied forces, bringing an end to the War in the Pacific and World War II.

  • The Japanese government sent U.S. President Harry S. Truman a cable, delivered through the Swiss diplomatic mission here, to advise the Allies of Japan's unconditional surrender.

  • At noon Japan standard time, Hirohito's announcement of Japan's acceptance of the Potsdam Declaration was broadcast to the Japanese people.


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  • Multimedia Citations

  • Slide 2: http://www.michigan.gov/images/hal/hal_mhc_am_arsenal_web_174329_7.jpg

  • Slide 3: http://bss.sfsu.edu/tygiel/Hist427/1940sphotos/firesidechat.jpeg

  • Slide 4: http://history.acusd.edu/cdr2/WW2Pics/81717.jpg

  • Slide 5: http://www.nyfolklore.org/images4/catsk-3.jpg

  • Slide 6: http://waysandmeans.house.gov/Legacy/portraits/highoff/hull.jpg

  • Slide 7: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/1/1e/Pearlharborcolork13513.jpg

  • Slide 8: http://www.awm.gov.au/striking/images/history/map.gifAdd Another File

  • Slide 9: http://www.aviation-history.com/boeing/b17_bomb.jpg

  • Slide 10: http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/d-day-message/images/landing-in-france.gif

  • Slide 11: http://www.wwnorton.com/worlds/images/map11_1.jpg

  • Slide 12: http://www.wwnorton.com/worlds/images/map11_2.jpg

  • Slide 13: http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/ac00001/ac02337.jpg

  • Slide 14: http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/ac00001/ac02719.jpg


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