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Water Resources. 1. Hydrologic Cycle and Water Reservoirs 2. Floods and Flood Control 3. Use of Water 4. Water Composition 5. Water Problems. Hydrologic Cycle. Distribution of Water (from “ Resources of the Earth ” 1972 data).

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Water resources
Water Resources

  • 1. Hydrologic Cycle and Water Reservoirs

  • 2. Floods and Flood Control

  • 3. Use of Water

  • 4. Water Composition

  • 5. Water Problems



Distribution of water from resources of the earth 1972 data
Distribution of Water(from “Resources of the Earth” 1972 data)


Distribution of water h ttp ga water usgs gov edu waterdistribution html 1997 data
Distribution of Waterhttp://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/waterdistribution.html (1997 data)


Bibliographical Acknowledgment

referenced publication for content development

Peixoto and Kettani, 1973 The Control of the Water CycleScientific American - Vol. 228 - pp. 46-6


Heat capacity of water
Heat Capacity of Water

  • This means that water has the ability to absorb and hold heat with a minimal change in temperature

  • Why?

  • When water evaporates it takes 540 cal/gm. This means that evaporation creates a cooling effect.

  • Ice going to water releases 80 cal/gm, thus releasing heat


World water resources
World water resources

http://www.worldmapper.org/


Evaporation mean annual u s
Evaporation (mean annual U.S.)

http://geochange.er.usgs.gov/sw/changes/natural/et/


Http ga water usgs gov edu watercycleevapotranspiration html
http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycleevapotranspiration.htmlhttp://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycleevapotranspiration.html

Evapotranspiration


Mean annual evapotranspiration
Mean Annual Evapotranspirationhttp://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycleevapotranspiration.html


When ppt e t
When ppt >>> e/thttp://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycleevapotranspiration.html

  • Then we get rivers and streams

  • Eastern NA—water surplus

  • Western US—water deficiency

  • Plays a role in population density in U.S. and Canada


Freshwater reservoirs
Freshwater Reservoirshttp://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycleevapotranspiration.html

  • Rivers and Streams

  • Lakes

  • Icecaps

  • Groundwater


Groundwater
Groundwaterhttp://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycleevapotranspiration.html

  • Much greater in volume than either lakes or streams

  • Non-renewable in our lifetime


Water table
Water Tablehttp://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycleevapotranspiration.html

  • Surface below which pores and fractures of rocks and overburden are water filled


What is an aquifer
What is an aquifer?http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycleevapotranspiration.html

  • Geologic formation that possesses porosity and permeability


Water resources1
Water Resourceshttp://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycleevapotranspiration.html

  • 1. Hydrologic Cycle and Water Reservoirs

  • 2. Floods and Flood Control

  • 3. Use of Water

  • 4. Water Composition

  • 5. Water Problems


Surface water floods flood control
Surface Water/Floods/Flood Controlhttp://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycleevapotranspiration.html

  • Surface water is water that flows off the land in streams and rivers

  • What is it dependent upon??


  • Amount of precipitationhttp://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycleevapotranspiration.html

  • Slope and Length of drainage basin

  • Rock and soil type of drainage basin

  • Vegetation

  • Extent of impermeable areas


Red river discharge hydrograph
Red River Discharge Hydrographhttp://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycleevapotranspiration.html


When does flooding occur
When does flooding occur?http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycleevapotranspiration.html

  • When surface run-of exceeds a normal stream channel’s capacity and water spreads out onto the flood plain

  • Is this a problem?


What do we do to minimize flooding
What do we do to minimize flooding?http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycleevapotranspiration.html

  • 1. build dams

  • 2. build levees

  • 3. create channels (channelization)

  • 4. Moveable dams—Thames


Dams pro
Dams: prohttp://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycleevapotranspiration.html

  • 1. Do help with flood control

  • 2. Supply electricity

  • 3. Provide recreation

  • 4. Sources of water for irrigation

  • 5. Increases groundwater

  • Does anyone see some inconsistency here?


Dams con
Dams: conhttp://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycleevapotranspiration.html

  • 1. Sediment catchment

  • 2. Increased evaporation

  • 3. Loss of land

  • 4. Interruption of river transport and fish migration

  • 5. Environmental alteration


Some dams
Some Damshttp://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycleevapotranspiration.html

  • Aswan High Dam


Glen canyon dam
Glen Canyon Damhttp://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycleevapotranspiration.html


Hoover dam
Hoover Damhttp://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycleevapotranspiration.html


Three gorges dam http svs gsfc nasa gov vis a000000 a003400 a003433 topm
Three Gorges Damhttp://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycleevapotranspiration.htmlhttp://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a000000/a003400/a003433/#topm


Levees
Leveeshttp://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycleevapotranspiration.html


Channelization
Channelizationhttp://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycleevapotranspiration.html

  • Replacement of a meandering stream by a deeper, straighter channel


Drawbacks
Drawbackshttp://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycleevapotranspiration.html

  • Transfer of flooding

  • Flood plain doesn’t get new sediment


Kissimmee river in florida
Kissimmee river in Floridahttp://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycleevapotranspiration.html


Drawbacks of channelization
Drawbacks of Channelizationhttp://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycleevapotranspiration.html

  • Increased erosion

  • Transfer of flooding downstream

  • Reduced natural filtering of water and drainage basin

  • Loss of wetlands

  • Reduction in available water for general use

  • Less evapotranspiration

  • Less infiltration

  • Lower ground water levels

  • Larger variations in flow rates

  • Reduction in wildlife


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