Violence and Aggression in High School

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Explosion of Violence. Between February 1996 and December 1999 there were 17 school shootings.Nine of these shootings were in high schools.Littleton, CO 4/20/99 Richmond, VA 6/15/98Springfield, OR 5/21/98 Onalaska, WA 5/21/98Houston, TX 5/21/98 Fayetteville, TN 5/19/98Paducah, KY 12/1/97 Pearl, MS 10/1/97Bethel, Alaska 2/19/97.

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Violence and Aggression in High School

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1. Violence and Aggression in High School By Eric Johnson

2. Explosion of Violence Between February 1996 and December 1999 there were 17 school shootings. Nine of these shootings were in high schools. Littleton, CO 4/20/99 Richmond, VA 6/15/98 Springfield, OR 5/21/98 Onalaska, WA 5/21/98 Houston, TX 5/21/98 Fayetteville, TN 5/19/98 Paducah, KY 12/1/97 Pearl, MS 10/1/97 Bethel, Alaska 2/19/97

3. Stats and Facts of School Violence One in 12 high school students will be threatened or injured with a weapon every year. Between ages 12-24 are the at risk ages for being victimized by violence. There is no single explanation for youth violence. Numerous factors cause violent behavior.

4. Reasons for Violence Expression Manipulation Retaliation Learned Violent behavior Biological

5. Underlining Factors Peer Pressure Need for attention and respect Low self-esteem Early childhood abuse or neglect Witnessed violence at home and through media Access to weapons

6. Immediate Warning Signs of an Aggressive Student Daily loss of temper Frequent physical fighting Vandalism Drug and alcohol use Risk-taking behaviors Announcing threats or plans of aggression or violence Enjoys hurting animals Carries a weapon

7. Potential Warning Signs of an Aggressive Student History of violence Serious drug and alcohol use Gang member Fascination with weapons Withdraws from friends and social events Feeling rejected or disrespected Low school attendance and performance Run-ins with authority Fails to acknowledge rights of others

8. Types of Acting Out Behavior Verbal Acting Out ----- Verbal Intervention Physical Acting Out Ė Physical Intervention

9. Public Support of Violence Prevention Government Initiatives Community Initiatives Overall School Improvement School Safety Policies Creation of a Prevention Program

10. CPI Nonviolent Crisis Intervention Identifying Crisis Behavior Levels Anxiety Defensive Acting out Tension Reduction Suggested Staff Approaches Supportive Listening Set Limits Nonviolent Intervention Therapeutic Rapport

11. CPI Nonviolent Crisis Intervention (continued) Proximity control (Personal Space) 1 1/2 to 3 feet Beyond Arm Length Kinesics (Body Language) Non-verbal Motions Donít Rock back and forth Donít Fidget Donít square up

12. The CPI Supportive Stance Benefits of CPI You donít encroach on studentís personal space. You offer a perceived ďescape route.Ē You allow for proximity space

13. CPI Para verbal Communication Definition-the vocal part of speech, excluding the actual words one uses. Three Elements Tone Volume Cadence Be supportive Donít be sarcastic or insulting

14. CPI Verbal Escalation Continuum Studentís Actions Questioning Refusal: Non- compliance Release: Yelling or screaming Intimidation: verbal or physical Tension Reduction Interventions Redirect, set limits Restate limits Isolation Call Intervention Team Assist tension reduction and restate instructions

15. Key to Setting Limits Make Limits Clear and Simple Make Limits Reasonable Make Limits Enforceable

16. Verbal Intervention Tips and Techniques Be Consistent Avoid Verbal Power Struggle Donít make Threats Donít Invade Space Donít Over-react Donít Back down

17. Empathetic Listening Definition- active process to discern what a person is saying Non-judgmental Have studentís undivided attention Listen for the real message Re-state studentís statements to clarify them

18. Staff Fear and Anxiety Unproductive Freezing up/Stage Fright Over-reacting Responding inappropriately Productive Increase in Strength Senses acuity Decrease in reaction

19. Team Intervention All forms of intervention are best performed through a team of professionals. Two ingredients of good teamwork. Communication Experience Two questions that need to be answered: Who should be on the intervention team? What should the team do?

20. Why Team Intervention? Team intervention is safer for all involved. Team intervention is more professional. Team intervention is safer from a legal standpoint.

21. Choosing a Team Leader Team leader should not be restricted to the senior staff member. Spontaneous Process Individual first on the scene Individual who best knows the explosive student Designated leader Choose the most confident person Donít choose the biggest and strongest.

22. Team Leaderís Duties Assessing and planning intervention techniques Directing and cuing intervention Maintaining proper communication with team members and the individual student

23. Available Web Sites www.crisisprevention.com www.helping.apa.com Click on ďWarning SignsĒ

24. The End

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