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Environmental Indexes by Amit Joshi Purpose Assess the potential risks posed by releases from industrial sources Conduct preliminary impact assessment Tool for screening analysis Classification Abiotic Indexes Health-Related Indexes Ecotoxicity Indexes

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Environmental Indexes by Amit Joshi

Air Pollution Research Group


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Purpose

  • Assess the potential risks posed by releases from industrial sources

  • Conduct preliminary impact assessment

  • Tool for screening analysis

Air Pollution Research Group


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Classification

  • Abiotic Indexes

  • Health-Related Indexes

  • Ecotoxicity Indexes

Air Pollution Research Group


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Abiotic Indexes

  • Global Warming

  • Stratospheric Ozone Depletion

  • Acid Deposition

  • Smog Formation

Air Pollution Research Group


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Health-Related Indexes

  • Inhalation Toxicity

  • Ingestion Toxicity

  • Inhalation Carcinogen Toxicity

  • Ingestion Carcinogen Toxicity

Air Pollution Research Group


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Ecotoxicity Indexes

  • Fish Aquatic Toxicity

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Global Warming Index

  • Ratio of cumulative infrared energy capture from the release of 1 kg of a green-house gas relative to that from 1 kg of carbon dioxide (IPCC,1991)

ai is the predicted radiative forcing of the gas i (Wm-2)

Ci is its predicted concentration in the atmosphere (ppm)

n is the number of years over which the integration is performed

Air Pollution Research Group


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Global Warming Index (contd..)

  • The product of GWP and the mass emission rate of the greenhouse chemical gives the emission in terms of CO2 (the benchmark compound)

    IGW=  (GWPi * mi)

  • For the, organic compounds, with atmospheric reaction residence time less than ½ a year, an indirect GWP is defined (Shonnard and Hiew, 2000)

Nc is the number of carbon atoms in the chemical

MWi is the molecular wt.

Air Pollution Research Group


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Global Warming Index (contd..)

  • Factors affecting GWP

  • Chemical’s tropospheric residence time

  • The strength of its infrared radiation absorbance

Air Pollution Research Group


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Ozone Depletion Index

  • Ratio of the predicted time- and height- integrated change

     [O3] in stratospheric ozone caused by the release of a specific quantity of the chemical relative to that caused by the same quantity of a benchmark compound, tricholorofluoromethane (CFC-11,CCL3F) (Fisher et al., 1990)

Air Pollution Research Group


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Ozone Depletion Index (contd..)

  • The product of ODP and the mass emission rate of the greenhouse chemical gives the emission in terms of CFC-11, the benchmark compound.

  • IOD=  (ODPi * mi)

Air Pollution Research Group


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Acid Rain Index

  • The number of H+ created per number of moles of the compound emitted as shown in the following equation

    X + -------------  H+ + -----------

    where, X is the emitted chemicals substance initiating acidification and  is a molar stoichiometric coefficient.

  • H+ created per mass of substance emitted (i,H+moles/ kg i)

    i= i__

    MWi

MWi is the molecular weight of the emitted substance (moles i /kg i )

Air Pollution Research Group


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Acid Rain Index (contd..)

  • ARPi = __i__

    SO2

    expressed in terms of benchmark compound SO2

  • The product of ARP and the mass emission rate of the chemical gives the emission in terms of SO2 (the benchmark compound)

  • IAR=  (ARPi * mi)

Air Pollution Research Group


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Smog Formation Index

  • Incremental reactivity (IR) for evaluation of SWP

  • Definition: The Change in moles of ozone formed as a result of emission into an air shed of one mole of the VOC (Carter and Atkinson,1989)

  • VOC IR is proportional to NOx level relative to reactive organic gases (ROG)

Air Pollution Research Group


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Smog Formation Index (contd..)

  • Maximum Incremental Reactivity (MIR)- Most relavent scale for comparing VOCs. MIR occurs under high NOx conditions when the highest ozone formation occurs (Carter,1994)

  • SFPi= __MIRi__

    MIRROG

MIRROG is the average value for background organic gases, the benchmark compound for this index

Air Pollution Research Group


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Smog Formation Index (contd..)

  • The product of SFP and the mass emission rate of the chemical gives the emission in terms of background ROG, the benchmark compound

  • ISF=  (SFPi * mi)

Air Pollution Research Group


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Toxicity Potentials

  • Toxicity : Complex function of dose and response

  • Dose: Depends on complex series of steps involving

    1) manner of release

    2) environmental fate and transport of chemicals

    3) uptake mechanisms

  • Response: Response by the target organ in the body is a complex function of

    1) chemical structure

    2) modes of action

Air Pollution Research Group


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Toxicity Potentials (contd..)

  • Types of Toxicity

    1) Carcinogenic Toxicity: defined in terms of Benzene

    2) Non-Carcinogenic Toxicity : defined in terms of Toluene

  • Dominant exposure routes for human contact with toxic chemicals in the environment

    1) Inhalation

    2) Ingestion

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Toxicity Potentials (contd..)

  • Non-Carcinogenic Toxicity

    controlled by threshold exposure i.e., doses below the threshold value do not manifest a toxic response whereas the doses above this will do.

  • Key parameters for chemicals

    Ingestion : reference does (RfD(mg/kg/day))

    : lethal dose (LD50)

    Inhalation: reference concentration (RfC(mg/m3))

    : lethal concentration(LC50)

    RfCs and RfDs are not available for all chemicals so LD50 and LC50 are used

Air Pollution Research Group


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Toxicity Potentials (contd..)

Non-Carcinogenic Ingestion Toxicity Potential

Ingestion Toxicity Potential

Inhalation Toxicity Potential

C w,i and C w,Toluene are the steady-state concentrations of the chemical and the benchmark compound in the water compartment

C a,i and C a,Toluene are the steady-state concentrations of the chemical and the benchmark compound in the air compartment

Air Pollution Research Group


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Toxicity Potentials (contd..)

Non-Carcinogenic Ingestion Toxicity Potential (contd..)

  • The product of I*INGi and the mass emission rate of the chemical gives the emission in terms of Toluene, the benchmark compound

  • IING=  (I*INGi * mi)

  • The product of I*INHYi and the mass emission rate of the chemical gives the emission in terms of Toluene, the benchmark compound.

  • IINH=  (I*INHi * mi)

Air Pollution Research Group


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Toxicity Potentials (contd..)

Carcinogenic Toxicity

Ingestion Toxicity Potential

Inhalation Toxicity Potential

HV is the hazard value for carcinogenic health effects

Air Pollution Research Group


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Toxicity Potentials (contd..)

Carcinogenic Toxicity(contd..)

  • The product of I*CINGi and the mass emission rate of the chemical gives the emission in terms of Toluene (the benchmark compound)

  • ICINGi=  (I*CINGi * mi)

  • The product of I*INHYi and the mass emission rate of the chemical gives the emission in terms of Toluene (the benchmark compound)

  • ICINHi=  (I*CINHi * mi)

Air Pollution Research Group


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Toxicity Potentials (contd..)

  • In non-carcinogenic toxicity indexes, RfDs and RfCs can also be used if available instead of LD50 and LC50 .

  • In carcinogenic toxicity indexes, Slope Factor (SF) can be used instead of hazard values for chemicals.

    Slope Factor : Known as a cancer slope potency factor. It is obtained using the excess cancer versus administered dose data

Air Pollution Research Group


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Ecotoxicity Index

  • Fish Toxicity Index

    LC50 - the 4-day rodent or fish lethal dose (mg/l) which causes 50% mortality in a test population.

    Benchmark compound: PCP - pentachlorophenol

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Summary

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Summary (contd..)

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