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Environmental Indexes by Amit Joshi Purpose Assess the potential risks posed by releases from industrial sources Conduct preliminary impact assessment Tool for screening analysis Classification Abiotic Indexes Health-Related Indexes Ecotoxicity Indexes

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environmental indexes by amit joshi

Environmental Indexes by Amit Joshi

Air Pollution Research Group

purpose
Purpose
  • Assess the potential risks posed by releases from industrial sources
  • Conduct preliminary impact assessment
  • Tool for screening analysis

Air Pollution Research Group

classification
Classification
  • Abiotic Indexes
  • Health-Related Indexes
  • Ecotoxicity Indexes

Air Pollution Research Group

abiotic indexes
Abiotic Indexes
  • Global Warming
  • Stratospheric Ozone Depletion
  • Acid Deposition
  • Smog Formation

Air Pollution Research Group

health related indexes
Health-Related Indexes
  • Inhalation Toxicity
  • Ingestion Toxicity
  • Inhalation Carcinogen Toxicity
  • Ingestion Carcinogen Toxicity

Air Pollution Research Group

ecotoxicity indexes
Ecotoxicity Indexes
  • Fish Aquatic Toxicity

Air Pollution Research Group

global warming index
Global Warming Index
  • Ratio of cumulative infrared energy capture from the release of 1 kg of a green-house gas relative to that from 1 kg of carbon dioxide (IPCC,1991)

ai is the predicted radiative forcing of the gas i (Wm-2)

Ci is its predicted concentration in the atmosphere (ppm)

n is the number of years over which the integration is performed

Air Pollution Research Group

global warming index contd
Global Warming Index (contd..)
  • The product of GWP and the mass emission rate of the greenhouse chemical gives the emission in terms of CO2 (the benchmark compound)

IGW=  (GWPi * mi)

  • For the, organic compounds, with atmospheric reaction residence time less than ½ a year, an indirect GWP is defined (Shonnard and Hiew, 2000)

Nc is the number of carbon atoms in the chemical

MWi is the molecular wt.

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global warming index contd9
Global Warming Index (contd..)
  • Factors affecting GWP
  • Chemical’s tropospheric residence time
  • The strength of its infrared radiation absorbance

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ozone depletion index
Ozone Depletion Index
  • Ratio of the predicted time- and height- integrated change

 [O3] in stratospheric ozone caused by the release of a specific quantity of the chemical relative to that caused by the same quantity of a benchmark compound, tricholorofluoromethane (CFC-11,CCL3F) (Fisher et al., 1990)

Air Pollution Research Group

ozone depletion index contd
Ozone Depletion Index (contd..)
  • The product of ODP and the mass emission rate of the greenhouse chemical gives the emission in terms of CFC-11, the benchmark compound.
  • IOD=  (ODPi * mi)

Air Pollution Research Group

acid rain index
Acid Rain Index
  • The number of H+ created per number of moles of the compound emitted as shown in the following equation

X + -------------  H+ + -----------

where, X is the emitted chemicals substance initiating acidification and  is a molar stoichiometric coefficient.

  • H+ created per mass of substance emitted (i,H+moles/ kg i)

i= i__

MWi

MWi is the molecular weight of the emitted substance (moles i /kg i )

Air Pollution Research Group

acid rain index contd
Acid Rain Index (contd..)
  • ARPi = __i__

SO2

expressed in terms of benchmark compound SO2

  • The product of ARP and the mass emission rate of the chemical gives the emission in terms of SO2 (the benchmark compound)
  • IAR=  (ARPi * mi)

Air Pollution Research Group

smog formation index
Smog Formation Index
  • Incremental reactivity (IR) for evaluation of SWP
  • Definition: The Change in moles of ozone formed as a result of emission into an air shed of one mole of the VOC (Carter and Atkinson,1989)
  • VOC IR is proportional to NOx level relative to reactive organic gases (ROG)

Air Pollution Research Group

smog formation index contd
Smog Formation Index (contd..)
  • Maximum Incremental Reactivity (MIR)- Most relavent scale for comparing VOCs. MIR occurs under high NOx conditions when the highest ozone formation occurs (Carter,1994)
  • SFPi= __MIRi__

MIRROG

MIRROG is the average value for background organic gases, the benchmark compound for this index

Air Pollution Research Group

smog formation index contd16
Smog Formation Index (contd..)
  • The product of SFP and the mass emission rate of the chemical gives the emission in terms of background ROG, the benchmark compound
  • ISF=  (SFPi * mi)

Air Pollution Research Group

toxicity potentials
Toxicity Potentials
  • Toxicity : Complex function of dose and response
  • Dose: Depends on complex series of steps involving

1) manner of release

2) environmental fate and transport of chemicals

3) uptake mechanisms

  • Response: Response by the target organ in the body is a complex function of

1) chemical structure

2) modes of action

Air Pollution Research Group

toxicity potentials contd
Toxicity Potentials (contd..)
  • Types of Toxicity

1) Carcinogenic Toxicity: defined in terms of Benzene

2) Non-Carcinogenic Toxicity : defined in terms of Toluene

  • Dominant exposure routes for human contact with toxic chemicals in the environment

1) Inhalation

2) Ingestion

Air Pollution Research Group

toxicity potentials contd19
Toxicity Potentials (contd..)
  • Non-Carcinogenic Toxicity

controlled by threshold exposure i.e., doses below the threshold value do not manifest a toxic response whereas the doses above this will do.

  • Key parameters for chemicals

Ingestion : reference does (RfD(mg/kg/day))

: lethal dose (LD50)

Inhalation: reference concentration (RfC(mg/m3))

: lethal concentration(LC50)

RfCs and RfDs are not available for all chemicals so LD50 and LC50 are used

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toxicity potentials contd20
Toxicity Potentials (contd..)

Non-Carcinogenic Ingestion Toxicity Potential

Ingestion Toxicity Potential

Inhalation Toxicity Potential

C w,i and C w,Toluene are the steady-state concentrations of the chemical and the benchmark compound in the water compartment

C a,i and C a,Toluene are the steady-state concentrations of the chemical and the benchmark compound in the air compartment

Air Pollution Research Group

toxicity potentials contd21
Toxicity Potentials (contd..)

Non-Carcinogenic Ingestion Toxicity Potential (contd..)

  • The product of I*INGi and the mass emission rate of the chemical gives the emission in terms of Toluene, the benchmark compound
  • IING=  (I*INGi * mi)
  • The product of I*INHYi and the mass emission rate of the chemical gives the emission in terms of Toluene, the benchmark compound.
  • IINH=  (I*INHi * mi)

Air Pollution Research Group

toxicity potentials contd22
Toxicity Potentials (contd..)

Carcinogenic Toxicity

Ingestion Toxicity Potential

Inhalation Toxicity Potential

HV is the hazard value for carcinogenic health effects

Air Pollution Research Group

toxicity potentials contd23
Toxicity Potentials (contd..)

Carcinogenic Toxicity(contd..)

  • The product of I*CINGi and the mass emission rate of the chemical gives the emission in terms of Toluene (the benchmark compound)
  • ICINGi=  (I*CINGi * mi)
  • The product of I*INHYi and the mass emission rate of the chemical gives the emission in terms of Toluene (the benchmark compound)
  • ICINHi=  (I*CINHi * mi)

Air Pollution Research Group

toxicity potentials contd24
Toxicity Potentials (contd..)
  • In non-carcinogenic toxicity indexes, RfDs and RfCs can also be used if available instead of LD50 and LC50 .
  • In carcinogenic toxicity indexes, Slope Factor (SF) can be used instead of hazard values for chemicals.

Slope Factor : Known as a cancer slope potency factor. It is obtained using the excess cancer versus administered dose data

Air Pollution Research Group

ecotoxicity index
Ecotoxicity Index
  • Fish Toxicity Index

LC50 - the 4-day rodent or fish lethal dose (mg/l) which causes 50% mortality in a test population.

Benchmark compound: PCP - pentachlorophenol

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summary
Summary

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summary contd
Summary (contd..)

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