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Training Session on Energy Equipment. Monitoring Equipment Presentation to Industry Energy Efficiency Guide for Asia Chapter 15. Monitoring Equipment. © UNEP GERIAP. Training Agenda: Monitoring Equipment. Electrical measuring instruments Combustion analyzer Manometers Thermometers

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Presentation Transcript

Training Session on Energy Equipment

Monitoring Equipment

Presentation to

Industry Energy Efficiency Guide for Asia

Chapter 15

Monitoring Equipment

© UNEP GERIAP


Training Agenda: Monitoring Equipment

Electrical measuring instruments

Combustion analyzer

Manometers

Thermometers

Water flow meters

Speed measurement

Leak detectors

Lux meters

Monitoring Equipment

© UNEP 2005


Electrical Measuring Instruments

What Do They Do?

  • Measures major electrical parameters such as KVA, KW, PF, Hertz, KVAr, Amps and Volts, sometimes also harmonics

  • Instant measurements can be taken with hand-held meters, while more advanced facilitates cumulative readings with print outs at specified intervals

Monitoring Equipment

© UNEP 2005


Electrical Measuring Instruments

What Do They Do?

  • The HIOKI 3286-20 clamp on power hitester

  • measures:

Monitoring Equipment

  • Voltage

  • Current

  • Voltage/current peak

  • Effective / reactive / apparent power (single-phase or 3-phase)

  • Power factor

  • Reactivity

  • Phase angle

  • Frequency,

  • Phase detection(3-phase)

  • Voltage/current harmonic levels (up to 20th)

Figure: HIOKI 3286-20 clamp on power hitester

© UNEP 2005


Electrical Measuring Instruments

Where & How to Use?

  • These instruments are applied on-line to measure various electrical parameters

  • Have three leads connected to crocodile clips at the end

  • The three leads are colored yellow, black and red

Monitoring Equipment

Figure: Power and power factor measurement on single phase three wire circuit

© UNEP 2005


Electrical Measuring Instruments

Precautions

  • The clamp should never be attached to a circuit that operates at more than maximum rated voltage, or over bare conductors

  • Clamp on probe should be connected to the secondary side of a breaker

  • Rubber hand gloves, boots, and safety helmet should be used to avoid electrical shocks

  • The operation manual should be consulted before using the equipment

Monitoring Equipment

© UNEP 2005


Training Agenda: Monitoring Equipment

Electrical measuring instruments

Combustion analyzer

Manometers

Thermometers

Water flow meters

Speed measurement

Leak detectors

Lux meters

Monitoring Equipment

© UNEP 2005


Combustion Analyzer

What Does It Do?

  • Measures the composition of flue gases after combustion

Monitoring Equipment

  • Basically all combustion analyzers measure the % Oxygen or CO2 in the flue gases

  • The efficiency can be calculated with an inbuilt programme

Figure: A fyrite combustion analyzer

© UNEP 2005


Combustion Analyzer

Where & How It’s Used

  • Determines the composition of flue gases in the duct, which flushes out the combusted gases to the chimney

  • The flue gases’ composition values are based on volume

Monitoring Equipment

Figure: A gas combustion analyzer

  • Usually measure the % CO2 or O2 and the temperature of the flue gas

  • Mostly, the flue gases are sucked out in order to react with chemical cells that enables the reading of O2 or CO2

© UNEP 2005


Combustion Analyzer

Precautions

  • Always calibrate the instrument in open fresh air before taking a set of measurements

  • Check for clogging of the air filters

  • Ensure that the rubber tubing carrying the gases to the instrument is not bended

  • Wrap the opening space left by cotton rags to ensure that there is no in- or exfiltration of air

  • Use of hand gloves, goggles and safety helmet

  • Safety and precautions should be consulted from the operation manual

Monitoring Equipment

© UNEP 2005


Training Agenda: Monitoring Equipment

Electrical measuring instruments

Combustion analyzer

Manometers

Thermometers

Water flow meters

Speed measurement

Leak detectors

Lux meters

Monitoring Equipment

© UNEP 2005


Manometers

What Does It Do?

  • A manometer is a pressure measuring instrument that measure the differential pressure across two points

  • The liquid-column manometer is the oldest type and can be a simple U-shaped tube that is half-full of liquid

  • The pressure to be measured is applied to one side of the tube and is then represented by the difference in liquid levels in the tube legs

Monitoring Equipment

© UNEP 2005


c

a

b

Manometers

Principles

  • The manometer is a U-tube half filled with liquid. When both ends of the tube are open, the liquid is at the same height in each leg.

  • When positive pressure is applied to one leg, the liquid is forced down and up in the other leg. The difference in height, "h” indicates the pressure.

Monitoring Equipment

  • When vacuum is applied to one leg, the liquid rises in that leg and falls in the other. The difference in height, "h," indicates the amount of vacuum.

h

h

Figure: Principles of a manometer

© UNEP 2005


Manometers

Types of Manometers

  • A single-limb liquid-column manometer use a large reservoir and a scale beside a narrower column and can be used to measure small differences between great pressures

  • Use the deflection of a flexible membrane that seals a fixed pressure reference volume to determine the pressure

  • Use a coiled tube that as it expands due to pressure increase causes rotation of an arm connected to the tube

Monitoring Equipment

© UNEP 2005


Manometers

Where & How It’s Used

  • The air velocity in ducts can be measured using a pitot tube and inclined manometer for further calculation of flows

  • The difference in level of the manometer gives the total velocity pressure

  • The two openings at the end of the pitot tube are always connected to the two openings of the manometer

Monitoring Equipment

Precautions

  • Should not be exposed to very high pressures

© UNEP 2005


Training Agenda: Monitoring Equipment

Electrical measuring instruments

Combustion analyzer

Manometers

Thermometers

Water flow meters

Speed measurement

Leak detectors

Lux meters

Monitoring Equipment

© UNEP 2005


Thermometers

Contact Thermometer

  • Consists of two dissimilar metals that are joined together at one end

  • As the temp. changes at the junction of the two metals, a voltage is produced that can be correlated back to the temp.

  • Measures flue gas, hot air and hot water temp. through a probe in the stream

  • The four most common calibrations are J, K, T and E, and those for high temperature calibrations include R, S, C and GB

Monitoring Equipment

© UNEP 2005


Thermometers

Non Contact Type or Infrared Thermometer

  • Based on the principle that all objects emit infrared energy:

  • “The hotter the object, the more active its molecules, and the more infrared energy is emitted”

  • Useful for measuring hot spots in furnaces, surface temperatures etc

  • Allows measurements in applications where conventional sensors can’t be employed

Monitoring Equipment

© UNEP 2005


Thermometers

Where & How It’s Used

  • Temperatures are generally recorded for air conditioning units, boilers, furnaces, steam systems, waste heat recovery systems and heat exchangers

Monitoring Equipment

  • The probe or bulb has to be insterted into the fluid or gases that are to be measured

Figure: Thermocouple

© UNEP 2005


Thermometers

Precautions

  • The probe must be immersed in the fluid and the measurement must be taken after 1-2 minutes

  • The range for which the thermocouple is made for should be noted beforehand

  • The probe of the thermocouple should never touch the naked flame

  • The emissivity should be set according to the surface where the temperature is to be measured

Monitoring Equipment

© UNEP 2005


Training Agenda: Monitoring Equipment

Electrical measuring instruments

Combustion analyzer

Manometers

Thermometers

Water flow meters

Speed measurement

Leak detectors

Lux meters

Monitoring Equipment

© UNEP 2005


The distance traveled by the ball / time taken

Water Flow Meters

What Does it Do?

  • Measures linear, nonlinear, mass or volumetric flow rate of a liquid or a gas

  • The time of fill method: The time it takes to fill up a certain volume is recorded and the average flow can be calculated

  • The float method: The time it takes for a ping pong ball to travel a known distance and the surface velocity calculated:

Monitoring Equipment

© UNEP 2005


Water Flow Meters

Type of Water Flow Meters

  • The rotameter is a tapered tube and a float used for gases and liquids

  • The piston-type flowmeters is an economical alternative that use an annular orifice formed

Monitoring Equipment

  • by a piston and a tapered cone

  • Ultrasonic flowmeters is used for liquids and are commonly used in dirty applications such as wastewater

Figure: Ultrasonic flowmeters

© UNEP 2005


Water Flow Meters

Type of Water Flow Meters

  • Turbine flow meters is a very accurate meter used for clean and viscous liquids

  • Paddlewheel sensors are cost effective flow meters for water or water like fluids

  • Positive displacement flowmeters are used when no straight pipe is available

  • Vortex meters have low sensitivity to variations in process conditions

  • Magnetic flow meters do not have any moving parts and are ideal for dirty liquids

Monitoring Equipment

© UNEP 2005


Water Flow Meters

Where & How It’s Used?

  • Cases where measurement of water flow is absolutely essential include the efficiency of pumps and cooling towers, chillers and air conditioning plants, heat exchangers, condensers etc

Monitoring Equipment

Precautions

  • Thorough cleaning of the measuring spot

  • Ensure the internal is not corroded

  • Measure where the pipe flow is expected to be laminar and the pipe must be flowing full

© UNEP 2005


Training Agenda: Monitoring Equipment

Electrical measuring instruments

Combustion analyzer

Manometers

Thermometers

Water flow meters

Speed measurement

Leak detectors

Lux meters

Monitoring Equipment

© UNEP 2005


Speed Measurement

Tachometers and Stroboscopes

  • A tachometer is a contact type instrument that can be used where direct access is possible

  • A stroboscope is a source of flashing light that can be synchronized with any fast, repetitive motion so that a rapidly moving device seems to stand still, or to move slowly

Monitoring Equipment

Figures: A stroboscope to the left and a tachometer to the right

© UNEP 2005


Speed Measurement

Tachometers and Stroboscopes

  • Tachometers (contact type):

  • Used to measure the speed of rotation of a motor or pulley etc

  • The wheel is brought in contact with the rotating body that due to the friction obtains the same speed

  • Stroboscope:

  • This is a versatile flashing light source used to:

  • a) measure the speed of fast-moving objects or

  • b) to produce the optical effect of stopping or slowing down high-speed motion for observation, analysis, or high-speed photography

Monitoring Equipment

© UNEP 2005


Speed Measurement

Precautions

  • While using a contact type tachometer, care should be taken while bringing the wheel of the tachometer in contact with the rotating body

  • Loose clothing should never be worn while taking measurements with a tachometers

  • Taking measurements alone should be avoided

Monitoring Equipment

© UNEP 2005


Training Agenda: Monitoring Equipment

Electrical measuring instruments

Combustion analyzer

Manometers

Thermometers

Water flow meters

Speed measurement

Leak detectors

Lux meters

Monitoring Equipment

© UNEP 2005


Leak Detectors

What Does It Do?

  • Detects the ultrasonic sound of a leak

  • As long as the leak is turbulent, there will be enough sound to detect it ultrasonically

  • A leak test can be done in an enclosed area which is saturated with refrigerant

  • The electronic process heterodyning converts the high frequency leak sound to a lower range

Monitoring Equipment

© UNEP 2005


Leak Detectors

Where & How It’s Used?

  • The probe is slowly moved close to the gas or steam pipe line

  • Where the leak is a hissing sound can be heard through headphones

Monitoring Equipment

Figures: Leak detector

© UNEP 2005


Leak Detectors

Precautions

  • Dust or smoke should not come out of the pipe

  • Avoid measurement at the places where sound level is high

  • Safety precautions should be consulted from the operation manual

Monitoring Equipment

© UNEP 2005


Training Agenda: Monitoring Equipment

Electrical measuring instruments

Combustion analyzer

Manometers

Thermometers

Water flow meters

Speed measurement

Leak detectors

Lux meters

Monitoring Equipment

© UNEP 2005


Lux Meters

What Does It Do?

  • Consist of a body, a photo cell and a readout

  • Light energy is transferred by the photo cell into an electric current that the meter calculates to the appropriate value of Lux or Foot candles

  • A standard color can be referred to as color temperature and is expressed in degrees Kelvin

  • The readings will vary with different light sources

Monitoring Equipment

© UNEP 2005


Lux Meters

Where & How It’s Used?

  • The sensor is placed at the work station or where the light intensity will be measured

  • The instrument will directly give the reading

Monitoring Equipment

Figures: Lux meter

© UNEP 2005


Lux Meters

Precautions

  • The sensor should be properly placed on the workstation

  • Due its high sensitivity, the sensor should be kept safely

  • Safety and precautions should be consulted from the operation manual

Monitoring Equipment

© UNEP 2005


Training Session on Energy Equipment

Monitoring Equipment

THANK YOU

FOR YOUR ATTENTION

Monitoring Equipment

© UNEP GERIAP


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