Mitochondrial dna
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Mitochondrial DNA. Observations on Frye/Daubert Issues Associated with Forensic mtDNA Typing. What is mtDNA Typing? Database and statistical issues General unacceptance. FBI Laboratory- DNA Unit 2 Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory- AFDIL Regional Labs: New Jersey Connecticut

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Mitochondrial DNA

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Mitochondrial dna

Mitochondrial DNA

  • Observations on Frye/Daubert Issues Associated with Forensic mtDNA Typing.

  • What is mtDNA Typing?

  • Database and statistical issues

  • General unacceptance


North american forensic mtdna laboratories

FBI Laboratory- DNA Unit 2

Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory- AFDIL

Regional Labs:

New Jersey

Connecticut

Arizona

Minnesota

Mitotyping Technologies College Park, PA

Bode Techology, Springfield, VA

Labcorp, Research Triangle Park, NC

SERI, Richmond, CA

Reliagene, New Orleans

Orchid Cellmark- Texas

North American Forensic mtDNA Laboratories

Government Labs

Private Businesses


Mitochondrial dna

FBI Interpretation Protocol

Although there are differences in mtDNA compared with nuclear DNA, forensic identity testing is fairly straightforward. Typically sequence concordance is assessed between reference and evidence mtDNA sequences. When heteroplasmy arises, careful analysis and direct comparisons between multiple reference samples and a questioned sample should, in most cases, alleviate interpretational differences. If the mtDNA sequences from two samples being compared demonstrate the heteroplasmy (i.e., both sequences are observed in each sample), the interpretation is cannot exclude (or concordance). If they share a common sequence (i.e., one sample is heteroplasmic and the other homoplasmic, and one of the heteroplasmic types is concordant with the homoplasmic type), then the interpretation is a failure to exclude. If both samples are deemed homoplasmic and differ slightly (i.e., typically at only one site), further investigation is warranted; if no resolution can be attained, the interpretation is inconclusive. However, when rendering an interpretation (for concordance, exclusion, or inconclusive and for assessing weight of the evidence) in any forensic comparison, one should be careful not to exceed current limitations in knowledge, mtDNA or otherwise.


Mitochondrial dna

When a mtDNA profile from an evidence sample and one from a known reference sample cannot be excluded as originating from the same source, it is desirable to convey some information about the rarity of the mtDNA profile. If the suspect’s mtDNA type and the evidence mtDNA type are considered concordant (i.e., one cannot exclude the samples as originating from the same source), the current practice is to count the number of times a particular sequence is observed in a database(s). A confi-dence interval can be placed on the observation. Thus, based on the size of the database(s) and observed sampling, a range is placed on the frequency of a mtDNA haplotype (however, only an upper bound estimate usually is provided).


Mitochondrial dna

The statistical weight of a sequence match is presented in the following way: the sequence is searched against a population database (currently consisting of mtDNA sequences from populations of Caucasian, African, Asian, and Hispanic descent). The statement to be reported will state the number of times a particular sequence is present in the database and will include the number of entries in the database from each of the populations listed above. In some instances, a statistical calculation with a 95% confidence interval may be performed. These values should be included in the examiner’s notes.


Mitochondrial dna

FBI Interpretation Guidelines


Sequence frequency

SEQUENCE FREQUENCY

“Unless the discriminatory potential of a test can be objectively evaluated, an inclusion could mean anything. It is therefore incumbent on the forensic scientist to determine a means to evaluate and communicate the significance of an mtDNA inclusion or ‘match’.” Holland & Parsons, 1999. Forens. Sci. Intl.


Mitochondrial dna

Overall Search Results within Forensic Profiles

Average Number of Differences = 6.681


Mitochondrial dna

African Origin Database(s) within Forensic Profiles

Average Number of Differences = 9.881


Mitochondrial dna

Caucasian Origin Database(s) within Forensic Profiles

Average Number of Differences = 4.111


Mitochondrial dna

A 95% Upper Confidence Interval Using the Normal Approximation of the Binomial

P  1.96 [PQ/N]1/2 ;

where P = X/N, Q = 1-P, N = Database Size,

and X = number of times a matching sequence is found in the database.

Frequency of 0 differences = 9.2%

Frequency of 1 difference = 27.2%


Mitochondrial dna

CONFIDENCE LIMIT FROM ZERO PROPORTION

P limit = 1 – a – 1/N, where N = Database Size

N Maximum Frequency

500.0581 in 17

1000.030 1 in 34

2000.015 1 in 67

5000.006 1 in 167

10000.003 1 in 334

50000.00061 in 1670


Mitochondrial dna

Statistics Associated with Peterson Case

Match CriteriaFrequency 95%UCL Not Excluded

Zero Differences 0.00725 0.01133 1 in 88

Zero+One 0.09662 0.11085 1 in 9


Mitochondrial dna

Testimony of Terry Melton in NY v Porco


Mitochondrial dna

Overall Search Results within Forensic Profiles

Average Number of Differences = 1.459


Mitochondrial dna

Caucasian Database within Forensic Profiles

Average Number of Differences = 1.416


Mitochondrial dna

African origin Database(s) within Forensic Profiles

Average Number of Differences = 1.454


Mitochondrial dna

Cross of Terry Melton in Porco Case


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