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Job Analysis. Kelly Quirin Penn State University February 19, 2001. Overview. What is job analysis? How can you use this tool in your organization? Methods of job analysis How it works Real world example An exercise Summary. What is job analysis?.

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Job Analysis

Kelly Quirin

Penn State University

February 19, 2001


  • What is job analysis?

  • How can you use this tool in your organization?

  • Methods of job analysis

  • How it works

  • Real world example

  • An exercise

  • Summary

What is job analysis?

  • A systematic approach to collect information about a job such as tasks, responsibilities and the skills required to perform those tasks

  • An important part of Human Resources (HR) planning

How can it be used in your organization?

  • Job analysis assists HR in determining:

    • Necessity of the job

    • Equipment needed

    • Skills required

    • Supervision

    • Working conditions

    • Management/employee interaction

How can it be used in your organization?

  • Recruiting

    • Keyword searches on resumes that match job requirements

  • Selection

  • Appraisal

  • Salaries and Incentives

  • Training and Development

The Multifaceted Nature of the Job Analysis

Labor Relations


*DeCenzo and Robbins, p. 145


Strategic HR Planning

Safety and Health


Job Description

Employee Training


Job Specifications

Performance Appraisal

Career Development

Employee Development

How can it be used in your organization?

  • Job analysis can also:

    • Help the company remain profitable and competitive

    • Help the company keep up with technology

    • Prevent employees from being overworked

    • Help the company stay

      in compliance with

      government regulations

Nuts and bolts

  • What is analyzed?

    • Work activities

    • Working conditions

      • Supervisors

      • Location

      • Schedule

    • Machines and equipment

Nuts and bolts

  • What is analyzed? (cntd.)

    • Job performance

      • Operations

      • Standards

      • Time

    • Experience, training, and skills

    • Supervision and promotion patterns

    • Products/services completed

Nuts and Bolts

  • Who is involved in the job analysis?

    • Management

    • Supervisors

    • Job analysts

    • Job incumbent

    • Unions

    • Consultants

Methods of Job Analysis

  • Observation

  • Interview

    • Individual

    • Group

  • Questionnaires

    • PAQ

  • Diary

  • Technical Conference

  • Critical Incident Technique

Methods of Job Analysis

  • Observation Method

    • Analyst observes incumbent

      • Directly

      • Videotape

    • Useful when job is fairly routine

    • Workers may not perform to expectations

Methods of Job Analysis

  • Interview Method

    • Individual

      • Several workers are interviewed individually

      • The answers are consolidated into a single job analysis

    • Group

      • Employees are interviewed simultaneously

      • Group conflict may cause this method to be ineffective

Methods of Job Analysis

  • Questionnaires

    • Employees answer questions about the job’s tasks and responsibilities

    • Each question is answered using a scale that rates the importance of each task

Methods of Job Analysis

  • Questionnaires (ctnd.)

    • Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)

      • A structured, behavioral questionnaire

      • 194 items in 6 categories

        • Information input

        • Mental processes

        • Work output

        • Relationships

        • Job context

        • Other characteristics

Methods of Job Analysis

  • Diary Method

    • Employees record information into diaries of their daily tasks

      • Record the time it takes to complete tasks

    • Must be over a period of several weeks or months

Methods of Job Analysis

  • Technical Conference Method

    • Uses experts to gather information about job characteristics

Methods of Job Analysis

  • Critical Incident Technique (CIT)

    • Takes past incidents of good and bad behavior

    • Organizes incidents into categories that match the job they are related to

  • Involves 4 steps

Methods of Job Analysis

  • CIT steps

    • Brainstorm and create lists of dimensions of job behaviors

    • List examples of effective and ineffective behavior for each dimension

    • Form a group consensus on whether each incident is appropriately categorized

    • Rate each incident according to its value to the company

How It Works

  • Conducting the job analysis

    • Know the purpose

    • Gather Information about jobs to be analyzed

      • Books

      • Charts

      • Trade union literature

      • Government agency literature

    • Use employee input

How It Works

  • Conducting the job analysis (ctnd.)

    • Choose an efficient method of collecting information

    • Gather information from employee/supervisor about the job

    • Draft a job description

    • Obtain supervisor approval

A Real World Example

  • The Department of Labor

    • Job analyst uses observation and interview methods to gather information about an employee

    • Information organized into 3 categories

      • Data

      • People

      • Things

A Real World Example

  • Work Functions

  • Data People Things

  • 0. Synthesizing0. Mentoring0. Setting up

  • Coordinating1. Negotiating1. Precision work

  • Analyzing2. Instructing 2. Operating

  • Compiling3. Supervision3. Driving

  • Computing4. Diverting4. Manipulating

  • Copying5. Persuading5. Tending

  • Comparing6. Speaking6. Feeding

  • 7. Serving7. Handling

  • 8. Helping

*U.S. Department of Labor, Dictionary of Occupational Titles, 4th ed. Revised (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1991), p.xix.

A Real World Example

  • Job titles are listed in the Dictionary of Occupational Titles

  • Each job is given a code

    • Ex. A recruiter might be assigned the code 2, 6, 7 if the job entails analyzing data (2), speaking to people (6), and handling different things (7)

      • See previous table

An Exercise

  • Bruce Spuhler, customer service manager at BGS Sports, wants to conduct a job analysis on how his employees interact with customers and other employees.

  • What steps should Bruce take to implement a successful job analysis, and what method should he use to analyze his employees?

An Exercise

  • Possible Answer:

    • Determine the Purpose- to reinforce good behavior among employees and provide better customer service

    • Gather as much information as possible about retail and customer service, including past experiences with customers

An Exercise

3. Choose best method of job analysis

-Critical Incident Technique

-This would allow Bruce to discuss with his employees past incidents and whether they were effective or not

-Assign values of effectiveness

4. Gather information from workers and other managers about the job

An Exercise

5. Draft a behavioral job description

6. Identify areas that need improvement, and implement training programs to improve those areas


  • Job analysis is an effective approach to gathering information about jobs

  • There are 6 popular techniques to conducting job analyses

  • Job analysis is directly related to nearly every function of Human Resource departments in organizations


Cascio, Wayne F. Managing Human Resources. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1992.

DeCenzo, David A. and Stephen P. Robbins. Human Resource Management. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1999.

Gomez-Mejia, Luis R. and David B. Balkin. Managing Human Resources. Upper Saddle River: Prentice- Hall, Inc., 2001.

U.S. Department of Labor. Dictionary of Occupational Titles, 4th ed. Revised (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1991), p. xix.

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