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Foundations in Microbiology PowerPoint to accompany Fifth Edition Talaro Chapter 1 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Microbiology The study of of organisms too small to be seen without magnification bacteria viruses fungi

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Foundations in microbiology l.jpg

Foundations in Microbiology

PowerPoint to accompany

Fifth Edition

Talaro

Chapter

1

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.


Microbiology l.jpg
Microbiology

  • The study of of organisms too small to be seen without magnification

    • bacteria

    • viruses

    • fungi

    • protozoa

    • helminths (worms)

    • algae


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Branches of study within microbiology

  • Immunology

  • Public health microbiology & epidemiology

  • Food, dairy and aquatic microbiology

  • Biotechnology

  • Genetic engineering & recombinant DNA technology


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Microbes are involved in

  • nutrient production & energy flow

  • decomposition

  • production of foods, drugs & vaccines

  • bioremediation

  • causing disease


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Impact of pathogens

  • Nearly 2,000 different microbes cause diseases

  • 10 B infections/year worldwide

  • 13 M deaths from infections/year worldwide



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Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

  • First to observe living microbes

  • his single-lens magnified up to 300X

(1632-1723)


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Scientific Method

  • Form a hypothesis - a tentative explanation that can be supported or refuted by observation & experimentation

  • A lengthy process of experimentation, analysis & testing either supports or refutes the hypothesis.

  • Results must be published & repeated by other investigators.


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  • If hypothesis is supported by a growing body of evidence & survives rigorous scrutiny, it moves to the next level of confidence - it becomes a theory

  • Evidence of a theory is so compelling that the next level of confidence is reached - it becomes a Law or principle


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Spontaneous generation

Early belief that some forms of life could arise from vital forces present in nonliving or decomposing matter.

(flies from manure, etc)


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Louis Pasteur

  • Showed microbes caused fermentation & spoilage

  • Disproved spontaneous generation of m.o.

  • Developed aseptic techniques.

  • Developed a rabies vaccine.

(1822-1895)


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Germ theory of disease

Many diseases are caused by the growth of microbes in the body and not by sins, bad character, or poverty, etc.


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Robert Koch

  • Established a sequence of experimental steps to show that a specific m.o. causes a particular disease.

  • Developed pure culture methods.

  • Identified cause of anthrax, TB, & cholera.

(1843-1910)


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Taxonomy - system for organizing, classifying & naming living things

  • Domain - Archaea, Bacteria & Eukarya

  • Kingdom - 5

  • Phylum or Division

  • Class

  • Order

  • Family

  • Genus

  • species


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3 domains

  • Eubacteria -true bacteria, peptidoglycan

  • Archaea –odd bacteria that live in extreme environments, high salt, heat, etc

  • Eukarya- have a nucleus, & organelles


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Naming micoorganisms

  • Binomial (scientific) nomenclature

  • Gives each microbe 2 names

    • Genus - noun, always capitalized

    • species - adjective, lowercase

  • Both italicized or underlined

    • Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)

    • Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis)

    • Escherichia coli (E. coli)


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Evolution- living things change gradually over millions of years

  • Changes favoring survival are retained & less beneficial changes are lost.

  • All new species originate from preexisting species.

  • Closely related organism have similar features because they evolved from common ancestral forms.

  • Evolution usually progresses toward greater complexity.


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