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Feeding Dried Distillers Grains to Hogs. Ron Plain, University of Missouri. Production of Ethanol and Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles. 1 bushel of corn (56 lbs) will yield: 2.75 gallons of ethanol 17 lbs of DDGS. A 45 mil gal/yr plant generates: ~ 400 tons of DDGS every day.

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feeding dried distillers grains to hogs

Feeding Dried Distillers Grains to Hogs

Ron Plain, University of Missouri

production of ethanol and dried distiller grains with solubles
Production of Ethanol and Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles
  • 1 bushel of corn (56 lbs) will yield:
    • 2.75 gallons of ethanol
    • 17 lbs of DDGS

A 45 mil gal/yr plant generates:

~ 400 tons of DDGS every day

dry milled ethanol production
Dry Milled Ethanol Production

Corn

Ethanol

Stillage

Thin Stillage

Wet Distiller Grain

Condensed Distiller Solubles

Wet Distiller Grain with Solubles

DDGS

wet milled dry milled corn for ethanol
Wet Milled & Dry Milled Corn for Ethanol

Forecast

Source: PRX Blue Sky

ddgs production in the u s
DDGS Production in the U.S.
  • 2000 – 4.3 billion pounds
  • 2006 – 25.5 billion pounds
  • 2010 – 42.5 billion pounds

By comparison, U.S. hogs eat about 82 billion pounds of feed annually

use of dried distiller grains with solubles
Use of Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles
  • 80% used in ruminant diets
  • 10% exported
  • 10% fed to non-ruminants
u s ethanol plants
U.S. Ethanol Plants

5 bgy expanding to 8 bgy

dried distiller grains with solubles
Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles
  • Product variability – Nutrient Content
    • Crude protein
      • 23 to 30 %
    • Amino acid digestibility
      • 17.7 to 74.4 %
    • Lysine content
      • 0.59 to 0.89 %
    • Crude fat
      • 3 to 12 %
why the variation in nutrient concentrations
Why the variation in nutrient concentrations?
  • Nutrient variability of the corn
  • Processing methods
    • Type of yeast used
    • Fermenting and distillation efficiency
    • Drying temperature and time
    • Amount of solubles blended
ddgs product variability
DDGS Product Variability
  • Variability impacts on:
    • Nutritional value
    • Palatability (feed intake)
  • Indicators of quality
    • Color
      • Light golden to dark brown
    • Smell
      • Sweet to smoky or burnt
dried distiller grains with solubles13
Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles

Lower Quality

Less Digestible

High Quality

Highly Digestible

ddgs nutritional issues
DDGS Nutritional Issues
  • Micotoxins:
    • Any micotoxins (aflatoxin, vomatoxin, etc) in corn are concentrated by dry milling
    • Only purchase DDGS from ethanol plants which check corn for micotoxins before milling
ddgs nutritional issues15
DDGS Nutritional Issues
  • Amino Acids:
    • Imbalance of amino acids

(lysine, cystine and threonine)

    • Reduced amino acid digestibility
    • Add synthetic lysine if DDGS >10% of diet
    • Add synthetic threonine and tryptophan if DDGS >20% of diet
ddgs nutritional issues16
DDGS Nutritional Issues
  • Minerals
    • Corn is 0.25% phosphorus which is 14% digestible by hogs
    • DDGS is 0.75% phosphorus which is 90% digestible
    • Add less dicalcium phosphate to hog diets containing DDGS
    • Less phosphorus in the manure
ddgs nutritional issues17
DDGS Nutritional Issues
  • High Fat Content (9-12%)
    • Negatively impacts pork fat
    • quality and belly firmness
    • Significant problem if DDGS>20% of diet
ddgs impact on pork fat
DDGS Impact on Pork Fat

DDGS Content of Feed

ddgs nutritional issues19
DDGS Nutritional Issues
  • High Fiber Content
    • Valuable for ruminants
    • Low digestibility for hogs
    • Adds to volume of manure
ddgs handling
DDGS Handling
  • Particle size
    • 600 to 2,100 microns
  • Impacts
    • Flowability
    • Pelletability
storing ddgs
Storing DDGS
  • Limited Storage
    • High in polyunsaturated fatty acids
    • Wet distillers
      • Summer – 7 days
      • Winter – 3 to 4 weeks
    • Dry distillers (> 85 % DM)
      • Summer – 1 month
      • Winter – 3 months
dried distiller grains with solubles22
Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles
  • Health Considerations
    • Low soluble fiber diets may reduce the proliferation of pathogenic organisms in the GI tract (Hampson, 1999)
    • Illeitis or Lawsonia intracellularis
    • Hemorrhagic bowel syndrome
    • Fewer cases of:
      • Acidosis
      • Laminitis
      • Liver abscesses
feeding ddgs to sows
Feeding DDGS to Sows
  • DDGS during gestation & lactation
    • Slightly improves next pregnancy’s
      • Feed intake
      • Litter size
      • Weaning weight
substitution rule for swine rations
Substitution Rule for Swine Rations
  • Add 200 lb of DDGS + 3 lb limestone
  • To replace:
        • 177 lbs of corn
        • 20 lbs soybean meal (44%)
        • 6 lbs of dicalcium phosphate
hog growth performance 63 268 pounds
Hog Growth Performance (63-268 pounds)

Some other trials show no negative impact on animal performance for low levels of DDGS in diet

Source: University of Missouri feeding trials

economic value of ddgs for hogs 0 reduction in adg
Economic Value of DDGS for Hogs (0% reduction in ADG)

DDGS values ($/ton) for various prices of corn and soybean meal

Soybean Meal Price ($/ton)

economic value of ddgs for hogs 2 reduction in adg
Economic Value of DDGS for Hogs (2% reduction in ADG)

DDGS values ($/ton) for various prices of corn and soybean meal

Soybean Meal Price ($/ton)

economic value of ddgs for hogs 4 reduction in adg
Economic Value of DDGS for Hogs (4% reduction in ADG)

DDGS values ($/ton) for various prices of corn and soybean meal

Soybean Meal Price ($/ton)

recommended inclusion rates for ddgs in swine diets
Recommended Inclusion Rates for DDGS in Swine Diets

PhaseStart pointMax

Nursery (> 15 lbs) 5% 25%

Grow-finish 10% 20%

Gestating sows 20% 50%

Lactating sows 5% 20%

Boars 20% 50%

limitations
Limitations
  • Synthetic amino acids needed if DDGS >10% of ration
  • Quality of pork fat impaired if DDGS >20% of ration
  • Not recommended for pigs <15 lbs
  • Sows may need adaptation period to high levels of DDGS
summary
Summary
  • DDGS can effectively be used in swine diets
  • DDGS can negatively impact feed intake
  • DDGS quality is highly variable
    • Producers should test samples or develop specification sheet with the plant to properly formulate the ration
  • 200 lbs DDGS plus 3 lbs of limestone replaces 177 lbs corn, 20 lbs SBM and 6 lbs dical
acknowledgements
Acknowledgements

This PowerPoint file was adapted by:

  • Ron Plain, Ag Economist, U of Missouri
  • From a PowerPoint file originally developed by Marcia Shannon, Animal Scientist, U of Missouri
  • Summarizing a lot of fine research, especially by Jerry Shurson, Animal Scientist, U of Minnesota

A useful website: www.ddgs.umn.edu

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