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Feeding Dried Distillers Grains to Hogs PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Feeding Dried Distillers Grains to Hogs. Ron Plain, University of Missouri. Production of Ethanol and Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles. 1 bushel of corn (56 lbs) will yield: 2.75 gallons of ethanol 17 lbs of DDGS. A 45 mil gal/yr plant generates: ~ 400 tons of DDGS every day.

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Feeding Dried Distillers Grains to Hogs

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Feeding Dried Distillers Grains to Hogs

Ron Plain, University of Missouri


Production of Ethanol and Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles

  • 1 bushel of corn (56 lbs) will yield:

    • 2.75 gallons of ethanol

    • 17 lbs of DDGS

A 45 mil gal/yr plant generates:

~ 400 tons of DDGS every day


Dry Milled Ethanol Production

Corn

Ethanol

Stillage

Thin Stillage

Wet Distiller Grain

Condensed Distiller Solubles

Wet Distiller Grain with Solubles

DDGS


Wet Milled & Dry Milled Corn for Ethanol

Forecast

Source: PRX Blue Sky


DDGS Production in the U.S.

  • 2000 – 4.3 billion pounds

  • 2006 – 25.5 billion pounds

  • 2010 – 42.5 billion pounds

    By comparison, U.S. hogs eat about 82 billion pounds of feed annually


Use of Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles

  • 80% used in ruminant diets

  • 10% exported

  • 10% fed to non-ruminants


U.S. Ethanol Plants

5 bgy expanding to 8 bgy


Nutrient Composition (DM)


Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles

  • Product variability – Nutrient Content

    • Crude protein

      • 23 to 30 %

    • Amino acid digestibility

      • 17.7 to 74.4 %

    • Lysine content

      • 0.59 to 0.89 %

    • Crude fat

      • 3 to 12 %


Why the variation in nutrient concentrations?

  • Nutrient variability of the corn

  • Processing methods

    • Type of yeast used

    • Fermenting and distillation efficiency

    • Drying temperature and time

    • Amount of solubles blended


DDGS Product Variability

  • Variability impacts on:

    • Nutritional value

    • Palatability (feed intake)

  • Indicators of quality

    • Color

      • Light golden to dark brown

    • Smell

      • Sweet to smoky or burnt


Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles

Lower Quality

Less Digestible

High Quality

Highly Digestible


DDGS Nutritional Issues

  • Micotoxins:

    • Any micotoxins (aflatoxin, vomatoxin, etc) in corn are concentrated by dry milling

    • Only purchase DDGS from ethanol plants which check corn for micotoxins before milling


DDGS Nutritional Issues

  • Amino Acids:

    • Imbalance of amino acids

      (lysine, cystine and threonine)

    • Reduced amino acid digestibility

    • Add synthetic lysine if DDGS >10% of diet

    • Add synthetic threonine and tryptophan if DDGS >20% of diet


DDGS Nutritional Issues

  • Minerals

    • Corn is 0.25% phosphorus which is 14% digestible by hogs

    • DDGS is 0.75% phosphorus which is 90% digestible

    • Add less dicalcium phosphate to hog diets containing DDGS

    • Less phosphorus in the manure


DDGS Nutritional Issues

  • High Fat Content (9-12%)

    • Negatively impacts pork fat

    • quality and belly firmness

    • Significant problem if DDGS>20% of diet


DDGS Impact on Pork Fat

DDGS Content of Feed


DDGS Nutritional Issues

  • High Fiber Content

    • Valuable for ruminants

    • Low digestibility for hogs

    • Adds to volume of manure


DDGS Handling

  • Particle size

    • 600 to 2,100 microns

  • Impacts

    • Flowability

    • Pelletability


Storing DDGS

  • Limited Storage

    • High in polyunsaturated fatty acids

    • Wet distillers

      • Summer – 7 days

      • Winter – 3 to 4 weeks

    • Dry distillers (> 85 % DM)

      • Summer – 1 month

      • Winter – 3 months


Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles

  • Health Considerations

    • Low soluble fiber diets may reduce the proliferation of pathogenic organisms in the GI tract (Hampson, 1999)

    • Illeitis or Lawsonia intracellularis

    • Hemorrhagic bowel syndrome

    • Fewer cases of:

      • Acidosis

      • Laminitis

      • Liver abscesses


Feeding DDGS to Sows

  • DDGS during gestation & lactation

    • Slightly improves next pregnancy’s

      • Feed intake

      • Litter size

      • Weaning weight


Substitution Rule for Swine Rations

  • Add 200 lb of DDGS + 3 lb limestone

  • To replace:

    • 177 lbs of corn

    • 20 lbs soybean meal (44%)

    • 6 lbs of dicalcium phosphate


Hog Growth Performance (63-268 pounds)

Some other trials show no negative impact on animal performance for low levels of DDGS in diet

Source: University of Missouri feeding trials


Economic Value of DDGS for Hogs (0% reduction in ADG)

DDGS values ($/ton) for various prices of corn and soybean meal

Soybean Meal Price ($/ton)


Economic Value of DDGS for Hogs (2% reduction in ADG)

DDGS values ($/ton) for various prices of corn and soybean meal

Soybean Meal Price ($/ton)


Economic Value of DDGS for Hogs (4% reduction in ADG)

DDGS values ($/ton) for various prices of corn and soybean meal

Soybean Meal Price ($/ton)


Recommended Inclusion Rates for DDGS in Swine Diets

PhaseStart pointMax

Nursery (> 15 lbs) 5%25%

Grow-finish10%20%

Gestating sows20%50%

Lactating sows 5%20%

Boars20%50%


Limitations

  • Synthetic amino acids needed if DDGS >10% of ration

  • Quality of pork fat impaired if DDGS >20% of ration

  • Not recommended for pigs <15 lbs

  • Sows may need adaptation period to high levels of DDGS


Summary

  • DDGS can effectively be used in swine diets

  • DDGS can negatively impact feed intake

  • DDGS quality is highly variable

    • Producers should test samples or develop specification sheet with the plant to properly formulate the ration

  • 200 lbs DDGS plus 3 lbs of limestone replaces 177 lbs corn, 20 lbs SBM and 6 lbs dical


Questions?


Acknowledgements

This PowerPoint file was adapted by:

  • Ron Plain, Ag Economist, U of Missouri

  • From a PowerPoint file originally developed by Marcia Shannon, Animal Scientist, U of Missouri

  • Summarizing a lot of fine research, especially by Jerry Shurson, Animal Scientist, U of Minnesota

    A useful website: www.ddgs.umn.edu


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