Document design basics and typography
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Document Design: Basics and Typography Technical Communication, DAHMEN Aspects of Document Design Font/typography Color Graphics Layout Paper/media White space Symbols Size Terms for Typography Font—all sizes of a one type (originally just caps and lowercase)

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Document design basics and typography l.jpg

Document Design: Basics and Typography

Technical Communication, DAHMEN


Aspects of document design l.jpg
Aspects of Document Design

  • Font/typography

  • Color

  • Graphics

  • Layout

  • Paper/media

  • White space

  • Symbols

  • Size


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Terms for Typography

  • Font—all sizes of a one type (originally just caps and lowercase)

  • Family—all fonts belonging to a group (Arial, Arial Black, Arial Narrow)

  • Weight—amount of vertical thickness (Extra Light, Light, Book, Medium, Semi-bold, Bold, Extra Bold and Black)

  • Kerning—adjusting space between letters (AV or To)

  • Tracking—adjusting space among words on a line


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Additional Terms

  • Pica-1/6 of an inch

  • Point-1/12 of a Pica, 1/72 of an inch

  • Ascenders & Descenders

  • Serif and Sans serif and Display fonts


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Visual Cues for Text

  • Underline

  • Bold

  • Larger Type

  • Symbols ♠

  • Use of white space

Boxes


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Rules for Typeface

  • Use fonts of just 1 typeface

  • If you mix them, be consistent (headings vs. body text, e.g.)

  • Use italics, bold, and underline sparingly

  • Choose 10-12 points for body text

  • Make heading 2 points larger

  • Double space between headings and body

  • Larger type for slides


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The ‘Rule of Three’

« Between one section of text and another try to limit your changes to no more than three… »


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Example

Heading 1: Arial Black, 15 Point, Green, Left aligned

Heading 2:Arial, 13 pt, Red, left aligned

or

Heading 2:Arial, 13 pt, italics, Green, Left-aligned

NOT

Heading 2: Brush Script, 13 pt, underlined, red, left aligned


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Aspects of Contrast using Type

  • Size

  • Weight

  • Form

  • Direction

  • Color


Using size l.jpg
Using SIZE

can you believe I got

MARRIED?


Using weight l.jpg
Using Weight

Make a Difference

Join now!


Color l.jpg
Color

FLORENCE

Scarlet


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FLORENCE

Scarlet


Slide14 l.jpg

FLORENCE

Scarlet


Slide15 l.jpg

FLORENCE

Scarlet

Williams, Robin. The Non-Designer’s Design Book. (Berkeley CA: PeachPit Press, 2004) 164.


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Rule for Headings

  • Use them often

  • Keep them short

  • Use consistent format

  • Use them as aspect of design


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What do Headings do for us?

  • Orients reader

  • Indicates importance of information

  • Allow navigation

  • Helps create tables of contents

  • Makes reading/scanning easier


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Aspects of Page Layout

  • Define a visual hierarchy

  • Keep in mind the natural direction of the eye

  • Create areas of emphasis (text emphasis should match rhetorical emphasis)

  • Use white space and margins

  • Use lists, tables, boxes, columns

  • Use consistent layout across pages


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Principles of Text Blocking

  • Information serving the same purpose should look the same

  • Position determines importance

  • Empty space emphasizes text


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Pitfalls to Avoid (slide 1)

  • inappropriate column and margin spacing (size margins and space between columns proportionately)

  • trapped white space or holes in publications with neither graphics nor text

  • overstuffed pages (tiny type, lots of fonts and too many graphics)

  • headlines that are too small to stand out from the rest of the text or that are so large that the text fades into the background altogether


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Pitfalls to Avoid (slide 2)

  • floating elements (headings or pictures with equal amounts of white space around them so that they are not connected to any text or caption)

  • copy-filled pages (short documents, like pamphlets or presentation slides with too much text)

  • inconsistent design for similar elements

  • widows and orphans(source: Roger Parker's Looking Good in Print, Ventana Press, 1993)


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What do style sheets/guides do?

  • Consistent ‘look’ of document

  • Protects company/organization’s ‘image’

  • Keeps consistent terminology

  • Unifies aspects of writing (punctuation, capitalization, spelling)

  • Manage use of logos and symbols


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Web Sites

  • http://www.microsoft.com/typography/glossary/ch1.htm

  • http://www.redsun.com/type/


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