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Distributed Peer-to-peer Name Resolution. Christian Huitema Architect, Windows Networking Microsoft Corporation. Enable each PC to be a server Serve ad-hoc groups Promote and use IPv6, directly attach the users to the Net Provide a server-less DNS for IPv6 Platform for developers.

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Distributed peer to peer name resolution l.jpg

Distributed Peer-to-peer Name Resolution

Christian Huitema

Architect, Windows Networking

Microsoft Corporation


Vision the user to user web l.jpg

Enable each PC to be a server

Serve ad-hoc groups

Promote and use IPv6, directly attach the users to the Net

Provide a server-less DNS for IPv6

Platform for developers

Vision: The user to user web!

Mainframe

PC

Web

P2P

Centralized

Personal

Distributed Peer-to-peer Name Resolution


Making windows a great platform for p2p l.jpg
Making Windows a great platform for P2P

Firewall

Traversal

Sockets, DNS, files, print, ….

Firewall, NAT

IPv6

Multicast?

Security?

DNS?

Graphs

Group

Membership

P2P Names

Distributed Peer-to-peer Name Resolution


Naming the key to p2p development l.jpg
Naming: the key to P2P development

  • Provide each computer with a name

    • Each computer is a server

  • Names must be stable

    • Resolve names to addresses

  • Also name groups, users…

    • Find a member of a group,

    • Find the location of a user

Distributed Peer-to-peer Name Resolution


Peer to peer name resolution l.jpg

Identity = 128-bit number

No trademark!

Nodes manage a cache of “records”

Identity

IPv6 address

Proof (certificate)

Secure, Scalable, Robust, Private, Usable…

Peer-to-Peer Name Resolution

Look up initiated

Distributed Peer-to-peer Name Resolution


Design goal 1 security l.jpg

Names should resolve to the intended address,

One should not be able to fake an identifier

But one should not impose a central server…

Design Goal 1, Security:

Hello, I am [email protected]

Distributed Peer-to-peer Name Resolution


Secure use certificates prove the name l.jpg
Secure: use certificates, prove the name

  • Record = Identity, IPv6 Address, Proof

  • Sign [identity, address] with local private key

    • Check signature before placing in cache

  • Host Identity = hash (public key)

  • Group member Id = hash (group key)

    • Group membership, certified by group key

  • Generic = hash (authority’s key, Name)

    • Validity certified by “authority”

Distributed Peer-to-peer Name Resolution


Design goal 2 scalable l.jpg

Scale to the size of the Internet!

Assume at least one name per node.

Scale without a central server.

Design Goal 2: Scalable

1,000

10,000

100,000

1,000,000

10,000,000

100,000,000

1,000,000,000

Distributed Peer-to-peer Name Resolution


Scalable a hierarchical cache l.jpg

Circular space, centered on self

Cache levels:

First level: 360°

Second level: 36°

Etc.

Query:

Forward to “nearest”

Gain one level

log base X of (N) levels, 2.X Entries per level

Scalable: a hierarchical cache

Distributed Peer-to-peer Name Resolution


Scalable cache management l.jpg
Scalable cache management

  • Initial cache:

    • from memory, from neighbor

    • Proactive requests, “tell the network”

  • Update:

    • Learn from queries, requests

    • Try to fill each level, then replace

  • Finest level:

    • Learn about all “immediate neighbors”

Distributed Peer-to-peer Name Resolution


Design goal 3 robust l.jpg
Design Goal 3: Robust

  • No central point of control, no central point of failure.

  • Large distributed system: some nodes will fail at any time.

  • Uncontrolled systems: some nodes may be actively conspiring against us… but hopefully not too many.

Distributed Peer-to-peer Name Resolution


Robust reputation randomization l.jpg
Robust: reputation & randomization

  • Neighbor reputation: from query completion + verification

  • Forward query: random choice, use reputation

  • Cache replacement: random & reputation

  • Timers, removal of failing entries from the cache

Distributed Peer-to-peer Name Resolution


Design goal 4 privacy l.jpg
Design Goal 4: Privacy

  • Some information is sensitive: location, membership in groups, documents…

  • Control who can learn what you publish!

Distributed Peer-to-peer Name Resolution


Privacy control the scope of publication l.jpg
Privacy: control the scope of publication

  • Peer-to-peer name cloud = set of caches

  • Parallel clouds

    • Ad hoc, on the same “link”

    • In the same “site”

    • Within a group (group = authority)

    • The whole Internet

  • Enforcement:

    • Check membership of requestor

    • Don’t forward outside of scope

    • Don’t cache out of scope records

Distributed Peer-to-peer Name Resolution


Design goal 5 immediately usable l.jpg
Design Goal 5: immediately usable

  • On the Internet, Name = Domain Name

  • Used for Web Page, E-Mail, FTP

  • Limited availability, requires a contract and a permanent IP address.

Distributed Peer-to-peer Name Resolution


Usable gateway to the dns l.jpg

Global DNS name:

<ID>.pnrp.net

Use in URL, e-mail

Enables bootstrap

Central DNS gateway:

Publish NS record,

Join P2P cloud,

Forward requests

Local gateway:

P2P aware resolver

Usable: gateway to the DNS

Target Node: Reply on the same path

Look up initiated

PNRP.net

Distributed Peer-to-peer Name Resolution


Peer to peer naming summary l.jpg

Numbers are our friends: hosts, groups, URL

Scale to the size of the Internet, peer-to-peer, no server.

Prototype tested with 50,000 nodes

Secure, Private, Robust, Usable

Peer-to-peer Naming: Summary

Target Node: Reply on the same path

Look up initiated

PNRP.net

Distributed Peer-to-peer Name Resolution


Peer to peer roadmap l.jpg
Peer-to-Peer Roadmap

  • UPnP Enabled NATs – End of ‘01

  • IPv6 Service Deployment – End of ‘01

  • P2P SDK Design Review – End of ‘01

  • P2P SDK beta – Q1-02

  • P2P SDK v1 – Q3-02

Distributed Peer-to-peer Name Resolution


Call to action l.jpg
Call to Action

  • Support IPv6 in your Applications

  • Leverage UPnP NAT Traversal Today

  • Participate in Software Design Review

Distributed Peer-to-peer Name Resolution


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