Cross Culture Management. Mid-Term Review Class. Culture . the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another group or category of people. the mind refers to the head, hand and heart (thinking,feeling,acting)
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Mid-Term Review Class
Centralized Decision Making
Decentralized Decision Making
In some societies, top managers make all important organizational decisions. In others, these decisions are diffused throughout the enterprise, and middle- and lower-level managers actively participate in, and make, key decisions.
In some societies, organizational decision makers are risk averse and have great difficulty with conditions of uncertainty. In others, risk taking is encouraged, and decision making under uncertainty is common.
In some countries, personnel who do outstanding work are given individual rewards in the form of bonuses and commissions. In others, cultural norms require group rewards, and individual rewards are frowned on.
In some societies, much is accomplished through informal means. In others, formal procedures are set forth and followed rigidly.
High Organizational Loyalty
Low Organizational Loyalty
In some societies, people identify very strongly with their organization or employer. In others, people identify with their occupational group, such as engineer or mechanic.
Some societies encourage cooperation between their people. Others encourage competition between their people.
Some cultures focus most heavily on short-term horizons, such as short-range goals of profit and efficiency. Others are more interested in long-range goals, such as market share and technologic development.
The culture of some countries encourages stability and resistance to change. The culture of others puts high value on innovation and change.
Triandis: Within every culture there are people who are:
Embeddedness society based on performance (eg. college graduation) versus assignment based on heritage
Characteristic of societies based on interdependent social relations, where security, conformity and tradition are priorities.
Interest in promoting and protecting the attainment of positive affective experiences (pleasure, exciting life, varied life).
concept of an autonomous person that implies relating to others
in terms of self-interest and negotiated agreements (Schwartz, 1994).
Comprises the values that situate the person as an autonomous entity to pursue his or her goals and intellectual interests (curious, open minded, creative).
Harmony society based on performance (eg. college graduation) versus assignment based on heritage
Harmonious fit with nature and perhaps as well with the environment (unity with nature, protection of the environment, world of beauty).
Values give priority to the dominance of the surroundings through self-affirmation (ambition, success, risk).