Contemporary Clinical Psychology Third Edition

Contemporary Clinical Psychology Third Edition

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Chapter 1 . What Is Contemporary Clinical Psychology?. Clinical Psychology Activities. ResearchAssessment TreatmentTeaching ConsultationAdministration. Clinical Psychology Employment Settings. Private and Group PracticesColleges and UniversitiesHospitals Medical Schools Outpatient Clinics Business and Industry Military Other Locations.
Contemporary Clinical Psychology Third Edition

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1. Contemporary Clinical Psychology Third Edition Thomas Plante, Ph.D., ABPP Santa Clara University and Stanford University School of Medicine

2. Chapter 1 What Is Contemporary Clinical Psychology?

3. Clinical Psychology Activities Research Assessment Treatment Teaching Consultation Administration

4. Clinical Psychology Employment Settings Private and Group Practices Colleges and Universities Hospitals Medical Schools Outpatient Clinics Business and Industry Military Other Locations

5. Clinical Psychology Subspecialties Child Clinical Psychology Health Psychology Neuropsychology Forensic Psychology Geropsychology

6. Clinical Psychology Organizations American Psychological Association American Psychological Society State and County Psychological Associations National Register of Health Care Providers American Board of Professional Psychology Other Organizations

7. Related Fields Counseling Psychology School Psychology Psychiatry Social Work Psychiatric Nursing Marriage and Family Counseling Other Counselors Other Psychologists

8. Chapter 2 Foundations and Early History of Clinical Psychology

9. Early Conception of Mental Illness: Mind and Body Paradigms Greeks Middle Ages Renaissance 19th Century Birth of Psychology

10. The Founding of Clinical Psychology Lightmer Witmer Binet's Intelligence Test Mental Health and Child Guidance Movement Sigmund Freud in America The Influence of World War I Clinical Psychology Between World Wars I and II

11. Significant events in the history of clinical psychology 2,500?500 BC Supernatural, magic, herbs, and reason approaches to illness 470?322 BC Greeks use holistic approach 130?200 AD Galen develops foundation of Western medicine 500?1450 Middle Ages: supernatural forces influence health and illness 1225?1274 Saint Thomas Aquinas uses scientific thinking 1490?1541 Paracelsus uses movements of the stars, moon, sun, and planets to understand behavior 1500?1700 Renaissance and scientific discoveries suggesting biological factors influence health and illness 1596?1650 Ren? Descartes develops mind/body dualism 1745?1826 Pinel developed humane moral therapy to treat mentally ill 1802?1887 Dorothea Dix advocates for humane treatment of mentally ill 1848 New Jersey becomes first state to build a hospital for mentally ill

12. Significant events, continued 1879 Wundt develops first laboratory in psychology 1879 William James develops first American psychology laboratory at Harvard 1883 G. Stanley Hall develops second psychology laboratory at John Hopkins 1888 James McKeen Cattell develops third American psychology laboratory 1890 James publishes Principles of Psychology 1890 James McKeen Cattell defines ?mental test? 1892 American Psychological Association founded 1895 Breuer and Freud publish Studies on Hysteria 1896 Witmer establishes first psychological clinic at U. Penn 1900 Freud publishes The Interpretation of Dreams 1904 Binet begins developing an intelligence test 1905 Binet and Simon offer Binet-Simon Scale of Intelligence 1905 Jung creates a word association test 1907 Psychological Clinic, first clinical journal published 1908 Beers begins mental hygiene movement 1909 Clinical psychology section formed at APA 1909 Freud?s only visit to America at Clark University

13. Significant events, continued 1909 Healy develops child guidance clinic in Chicago 1916 Terman develops Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test 1917 Clinicians of APA leave to form American Association of Clinical Psychologists (AACP) 1917 Yerkes and committee develop Army Alpha test 1919 AACP rejoins APA 1921 James McKeen Cattell develops Psychological Corporation 1921 Rorschach presents his inkblot test 1924 Mary Cover Jones uses learning principles to treat children?s fears 1935 APA Committee on Standards and Training define clinical psychology 1935 Murray and Morgan publish the TAT 1936 Louttit publishes first clinical psychology textbook 1937 Clinicians leave APA again to form American Association of Applied Psychology (AAAP) 1937 Journal of Consulting Psychology begins 1939 The Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale is published 1943 Hathaway publishes MMPI 1945 AAAP rejoins APA

14. Chapter 3 Recent History of Clinical Psychology

15. Significant events: 1940s and 1950s 1940s 1945 AAAP rejoins APA 1945 Connecticut passes first certification law for psychology 1946 VA and NIMH fund clinical psychology training 1947 ABEPP is founded to certify clinicians 1949 Halstead presents neuropsychological testing battery 1949 Boulder Conference defines scientist-practitioner model of training 1950s 1950 Dollard and Miller publish Personality and Psychotherapy: An Analysis in Terms of Learning, Thinking, and Culture 1951 Rogers publishes Client-Centered Therapy 1952 Eysenck publishes The Effects of Psychotherapy: An Evaluation 1952 American Psychiatric Association publishes diagnostic categories in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM - I ) 1953 APA publishes Ethical Standards 1953 Skinner presents operant principles 1955 Joint Commission on Mental Health and Illness founded 1956 Stanford University training conference 1958 Wolpe publishes Psychotherapy by Reciprocal Inhibition 1958 Miami training conference 1959 Mental Research Institute (MRI) founded

16. Significant events: 1960s and 1970s 1960s 1960 Eysenck publishes Handbook of Abnormal Psychology: An Experimental Approach 1963 Congress passes legislation creating community mental health centers 1965 Chicago training conference 1965 Conference at Swampscott, MA, starts community psychology movement 1967 Association for Advancement in Behavior Therapy founded 1968 First PsyD program founded at the University of Illinois 1969 First freestanding professional school of psychology founded at California School of Professional Psychology 1970s 1970 DSM II published 1973 Vail training conference 1976 National Council of Schools of Professional Psychology (NCSPP) founded 1977 George Engel publishes paper in Science defining biopsychosocial model 1977 Wachtel publishes Psychoanalysis and Behavior Therapy: Toward an Integration

17. Significant events: 1980s and 1990s 1980s 1980 DSM III published 1981 APA ethical standards revised 1982 Health psychology defined 1986 NCSPP Mission Bay training conference 1987 Salt Lake City training conference 1987 DSM III-R published 1988 American Psychological Society founded 1989 NCSPP San Juan training conference 1990s 1990 NCSPP Gainesville training conference 1991 NCSPP San Antonio training conference 1992 Michigan Conference on postdoctoral training 1994 DMS IV published 1995 APA publishes a list of empirically validated treatments 1998 International Society of Clinical Psychology founded in San Francisco 1999 Guam authorizes psychologists to prescribe psychotropic medication

18. Significant recent events in 2000s 2001 APA alters mission statement to reflect psychology as a health care discipline 2002 APA ethics code revised 2002 New Mexico allows psychologists medication prescription authority 2003 Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) becomes law 2004 Louisiana allows psychologists prescription authority 2006 APA publishes findings from a Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice 2008 The U.S. Congress passes the Paul Wellstone Mental Health and Addiction Equity Act of 2007 allowing mental health parity in health care

19. Chapter 4 Research: Design and Outcome

20. Research Methods and Designs Experiments Quasi-Experimental Designs Case Studies Correlational Methods Epidemiological Methods Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Designs

21. Treatment Outcome Research Treatment Package Strategy Dismantling Treatment Strategies Constructive Treatment Strategies Parametric Treatment Strategy Comparative Treatment Strategy Client-Therapist Variation Strategy Process Research Strategy

22. Examples of Threats to Internal and External Validity Threats to internal validity History Maturation Testing Instrumentation Statistical Regression Selection Bias Experimental Mortality Threats to external validity Testing Reactivity Multiple-Treatment Interference Interaction of Selection Biases

23. Different Levels of Research Level 1 Basic laboratory research on factors associated with behavior change Level 2 Analogue treatment research to identify effective ingredients of therapeutic procedures under controlled laboratory conditions Level 3 Controlled clinical research with patient populations Level 4 Clinical practice. Therapists may measure outcome in case studies or clinical series.

24. Questions and Challenges Conducting Treatment Outcome Research Is the treatment provided in a research program similar to the treatment provided in actual clinical practice? Are the patients and therapists used in a research study typical of patients and therapists in actual practice? How and when is treatment outcome measured? Statistical versus clinical significance. How can treatment outcome decisions be made when some studies might conclude one thing and other studies conclude something different? What is a program of research and how is it conducted?

25. Contemporary Issues in Clinical Psychology Treatment Outcome Research Biopsychosocial approaches to psychopathology research Meta-analysis Empirically supported treatments Comprehensive and collaborative multi-site clinical trial research projects Community-wide interventions Ethical issues Multicultural issues

26. Chapter 5 The Major Theoretical Models: Psychodynamic, Cognitive-Behavioral, Humanistic, and Family Systems

27. The Four Major Theoretical Models in Clinical Psychology Psychodynamic Approach Cognitive-Behavioral Approach Humanistic Approach Family Systems Approach

28. Alternatives to the Psychodynamic Approach Behavioral Approach Cognitive Approach Humanistic Approach Family Systems Approach Psychotropic Medication Community Mental Health Movement Integrative Approaches Biopsychosocial Approach

29. The Psychodynamic Approaches Freud?s Psychoanalytic Perspective The Revisionist or Neo-Freudian Perspective The Object Relations Perspective ?

30. The Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Approaches The Classical Conditioning Perspective The Operant Perspective The Social Learning Perspective The Cognitive Perspective: Beliefs, Appraisals, and Attributions

31. The Humanistic Approach The Client-Centered Perspective Maslow?s Humanistic Perspective The Gestalt Perspective

32. The Family Systems Approach The Communication Approach The Structural Approach The Milan Approach The Strategic Approach The Narrative Approach

33. Chapter 6 Integrative and Biopsychosocial Approaches in Contemporary Clinical Psychology

34. A Call to Integration ? Commonalities among Approaches Efforts toward Integration ?Eclectism ?Beyond Psychological Models

35. Biopsychosocial Factors Diathesis-stress perspective Reciprocal-gene-environment perspective Psychosocial factors influencing biology Development of the biopsychosocial perspective

36. Biopsychosocial Applications Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Anxiety and Panic Cardiovascular Disease Cancer

37. Chapter 7 Contemporary Psychological Assessment I: Interviewing and Observing Behavior

38. Interviewing Rapport Effective Listening Skills Effective Communication Observation of Behavior Asking the Right Questions

39. Types of Interviews Initial Intake or Admissions Interview Mental Status Interview Crisis Interview Diagnostic Interview Structured Interviews Computer-Assisted Interviews Exit or Termination Interviews

40. Standard Clinical Interview Identifying Information Referral Source Chief Complaint or Presenting Problems Family Background Health Background Educational Background Employment Background Developmental History Sexual History Previous Medical Treatment Previous Psychiatric Treatment History of Traumas Current Treatment Goals

41. Chapter 8 Contemporary Psychological Assessment II: Cognitive and Personality Assessment ?

42. Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery Category Test Tactual Performance Test Rhythm Test Speech Sounds Perception Test Finger Oscillation Test Trail Making Test Strength of Grip Test Sensory-Perceptual Examination Tactile Perception Modified Halstead-Wepman Aphasia Screening Test Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale?IV (WAIS-IV) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory?2 (MMPI-2)

43. MMPI-2 Scales Validity Scales ? (Cannot Say) L (Lie) F (Validity) K (Correction) Clinical Scales 1 Hypochondriasis (Hs) 2 Depression (D) 3 Conversion Hysteria (Hy) 4 Psychopathic Deviate (Pd) 5 Masculinity-Femininity (Mf) 6 Paranoia (Pa) 7 Psychasthenia (Pt) 8 Schizophrenia (Sc) 9 Hypomania (Ma) 0 Social Introversion (Si)

44. MCMI-III Scales Clinical Personality Patterns Scales Scale 1 Schizoid Scale 2A Avoidant Scale 2B Depressive Scale 3 Dependent Scale 4 Histrionic Scale 5 Narcissistic Scale 6A Antisocial Scale 6B Aggressive (Sadistic) Scale 7 Compulsive Scale 8A Passive-Aggressive (Negativistic) Scale 8B Self-Defeating Clinical Syndrome Scales Scale A Anxiety Scale H Somatoform Scale N Bipolar: Manic Scale D Dysthymia Scale B Alcohol Dependence Scale T Drug Dependence Scale R Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

45. MCMI-III Scales, continued Severe Syndrome Scales Scale SS Thought Disorder Scale CC Major Depression Scale PP Delusional Disorder Severe Personality Pathology Scales Scale S Schizotypal Scale C Borderline Scale P Paranoid Modifying Indexes (Correction Scales) Scale X Disclosure Scale Y Desirability Scale Z Debasement

46. 16PF (Fifth Edition) A Warmth B Reasoning C Emotional Stability E Dominance F Liveliness G Rule Consciousness H Social Boldness I Sensitivity L Vigilance M Abstractedness N Privateness O Apprehension Q1 Openness to Change Q2 Self-Reliance Q3 Perfectionism Q4 Tension

47. Rorschach Sample

48. Rorschach Sample

49. Chapter 9 Psychotherapeutic Interventions

50. Common Denominators in Psychotherapy Professional Person Professional Manner Professional Setting Duration of Sessions Frequency of Sessions

51. Stages of Psychotherapy Initial Consultation Assessment Development of Treatment Goals Implementation of Treatment Evaluation of Treatment Termination Follow-Up

52. Modes of Psychotherapy Individual Treatment Group Psychotherapy Couples Psychotherapy Family Therapy

53. Chapter 10 Psychotherapeutic Issues

54. Ten Issues about Psychotherapy Does Psychotherapy Work? Long-Term Therapy versus Short-Term Treatment Psychotherapy Dropouts Is One Type of Therapy Better than Another? Enduring Psychotherapy Effects Common Factors Associated with Positive Psychotherapy Outcome Change Is Challenging Level of Training for Psychotherapists Health Care Costs and Psychotherapy Psychotherapy Harm

55. Chapter 11 Areas of Specialization in Contemporary Clinical Psychology

56. Clinical Health Psychology Smoking Obesity Alcohol Consumption Stress Management Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Chronic Pain

57. Child Clinical Psychology Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Learning Disorders Child Abuse and Neglect Anorexia Nervosa

58. Clinical Neuropsychology Epilepsy Brain Injuries Degenerative Diseases

59. Forensic Psychology Involuntary Commitment Insanity Defense Child Custody Jury Selection

60. Geropsychology Degenerative Diseases Vascular Diseases Parkinson?s Disease Psychiatric Issues (Anxiety, Depression, Substance Abuse)

61. Chapter 12 Consultative, Teaching, and Administrative Roles in Contemporary Clinical Psychology

62. Consultation Consultation Defined Consultation Roles Types of Consultation Stages of Consultation To Whom Do Clinical Psychologists Offer Consultation? Effective Consultation Problems in Consultation

63. Teaching Teaching in Academic Settings 1. Psychology Departments 2. Medical Schools and Hospitals Teaching in Nonacademic Settings 1. Clinics 2. Workshops 3. Business and Industry 4. General Public

64. Chapter 13 Ethical Standards in Contemporary Clinical Psychology

65. Ethical Principles Competence Integrity Professional and Scientific Responsibility Respect for People?s Rights and Dignity Concern for Others? Welfare Social Responsibility

66. Ethical Standards Advertising and Other Public Statements Therapy Teaching, Training, Supervision, Research, and Publishing Forensic Activities

67. Chapter 14 Current and Future Trends and Challenges in Contemporary Clinical Psychology

68. Trends in Society Contemporary Changes in the American Family Multicultural and Diversity Issues Advances in Science, Technology, and Medicine Money Gender Shifts in Professions

69. Research and Practice Issues Managed Health Care Prescription Privileges Medical Staff Privileges Private Practice Specialization Empirically Supported Treatments Reaching Beyond Mental Health in Contemporary Clinical Psychology Training Issues

70. Chapter 15 Becoming a Clinical Psychologist: A Road Map

71. Ten Important Goals During the College Experience High Grade Point Average High Graduate Record Examination Scores Quality Research Experience Quality Clinical Experience Excellent Verbal Skills Excellent Interpersonal Skills Reliability and Dependability Excellent Productivity Excellent Letters of Recommendation High Motivation

72. Applying to Graduate Programs in Clinical Psychology ?PhD versus PsyD versus MA University versus Freestanding Professional School Accreditation Training Curriculum and Emphasis

73. After Graduate School Clinical Internship Postdoctoral Fellowship Specialization Certification and/or Licensure Employment

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