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Civil Society Perspective on Air Quality Management Fakta, KPBB, Swisscontact, Indonesian Lead InformationCenter, KAWAT, WWF Indonesia, Kaukus Lingkungan Hidup Jakarta, Pelangi, Tra-DC, Indonesia Center for Environmental Law, Address: 3 rd Ranuza Building, Jalan Timor 10 Menteng

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Civil Society Perspective on Air Quality Management

Fakta, KPBB, Swisscontact, Indonesian Lead InformationCenter, KAWAT, WWF Indonesia, Kaukus Lingkungan Hidup Jakarta, Pelangi, Tra-DC, Indonesia Center for Environmental Law,

Address: 3rd Ranuza Building, Jalan Timor 10 Menteng

Jakarta 10340 INDONESIA

Ph: +62-21-3190 6807, F: +62-21-315 3401,

e-mail: [email protected], www.kpbb.org; www.indonesian-lic.org


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Air Pollution Disaster in Indonesia

Rapid urbanization, industrialization and land clearing palm oil plantation (forest fire) in Indonesia tend to cause chronic air pollution problems


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Indonesia Today: Air Pollution

  • Worsening ambient air quality

    • Mostly major cities only have “good” day not more than 2 months. Source: AAQM Report 2005

    • Air quality conditions in some cities and industrial areas currently exceed its ambient air quality standards (AAQS)

    • 70% from vehicular emissions

  • Social and Financial Impact

    • Increased respiratory diseases

    • Health costs from air pollution.

Source: AAQM Report 2005

Challenge: high level of public awareness about air pollution, but low commitment to improve air quality


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Health Effect: (BLL – Blood Lead Level)

Inverse Correlation BLL and IQ Point

Source: KPBB/LIC/ITB, 2005

Bandung

Makasar



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Health Effect: Benzena




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ADO:Sulfur Content


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ADO:C e t a n e I n d e x


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Unleaded Gasoline: Set back?

  • Leaded gasoline phase-out nationwide since July 2006

  • But, why did Government recommend to use Ferrocen as octane booster additive on last November?

    • No risk assessment, against Act No 23/1997 toward Environmental Management

    • No technical trial,

    • Contradictive and against Minister Decree No 141/2003 toward Emission Standard for New Type Vehicle

  • The Precautionary Principle, if an action or policy might cause severe harm to the public, in the absence of a scientific consensus that harm would not ensue, the burden of proof falls on those who would advocate taking the action.

Do Not Use the Children of Indonesia to Carry Out the Next Experiment!

(Michael P Walsh).



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Traffic and Transport Management

  • Lack of Integrated Transport Planning and Land-use Planning

  • Insufficient Public Transport

  • Non Motorized Transport

  • Carrying Capacity


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Lack of Integrated Transport Planning and Land-use Planning

  • Instant policy, no environmental risk assessment, no feasibility study

  • Inconsistence, contra productive


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Insufficient Public Transport

  • Unbalance (road base vs rail base, private vehicle vs public vehicle)

  • Bias to business interest of automotive industry?


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Non Motorized Transport

  • No space for non motorized transport?


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Carrying Capacity

  • Maximum total number of vehicle in the city compare to length of road and carrying capacity

  • Make longer and broader of road to solve the problem of traffic jump?


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Stationary Source

  • Environmental Risk Assessment

  • Self Monitoring

  • No periodically control

  • Small Scale industry and smelter


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Forest Fire

  • Land Clearing (large scale land conversion)

  • Transmigration

  • Natural

  • Agriculture


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Law Enforcement

  • Mobile source:

    • I/M and roadworthiness test (mandatory for public vehicle; voluntary for private car (except Jakarta)

    • Emission Standard for new type vehicle failed to be implemented cause unavailability of cleaner fuels.

    • Inconsistence policy made failure the gaseous fuel for transport

  • Stationary source:

    • No periodically control by official government (just implement self monitoring)

    • Incomplete regulation on industrial emission standard.

  • Forest Fire:

    • No political will to prevent and stop forest fire

    • Unfinished litigation process in the case of forest fire=> no deterrent effect.


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Poverty and Air Pollution

  • Poor people: high risk (occupation, resident, malnutrition, uneducated).

  • Air quality improvement program has not considered poverty as critical problem.

  • Lack of access to resource.

  • Polluters pay principle has not effectively implemented yet; just a slogan.


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Air Quality Management:

Integration of Functions

Policy

Legislation

Global Partnership

Public Participation

Monitoring

Enforcement

An effective air quality management needs to integrate policy making, legislation, monitoring and enforcement for fuel, emission standards, technology, land use planning, I&M and transport management. In the implementation, it could be accommodated the public participation and global networking.


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The challenges

  • The air pollution at this present time is still being a threat for most regions in Indonesia

  • Encourage of formal coordination to binding commitment and gain political will among stake holder

  • Harmonize current regulation and continuing legislation process to complete regulation on air quality improvement effort.

  • Capacity building to improve human capacity

  • An effective budgeting to cover funding limitations

  • Study on air pollution and poverty

  • To raise public awareness => affective

Thank You


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