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Bluetooth. Presenters: Group 6 Allan Alarcon, Ingrid Anderson, Bhupesh Kapoor, Shi-Wu Lee. - Name given to this new technology, set to commercially come out this year - It is a cable-replacement technology.

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Bluetooth

Bluetooth

Presenters: Group 6

Allan Alarcon, Ingrid Anderson, Bhupesh Kapoor, Shi-Wu Lee


- Name given to this new technology, set to commercially come out this year - It is a cable-replacement technology


- come out this yearTechnically, is a chip to be plugged into computers, printers, mobile phones, etc. Designed by taking the information normally carried by the cable, and transmitting it at a special frequency to a receiver Bluetooth chip which will then give information received to these mobile devices.


History come out this yearHistoryThe Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) was founded by Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Nokia and Toshiba in February 1998 to develop as open specification for short-range wireless connectivity.


Key features robustness low complexity low power and low cost
Key Features come out this year:Robustness, low complexity, low power and low cost


Main Strength come out this year:Ability to simultaneously handle both data and voice transmissions such as headset for voice calls.


Usage come out this yearHome: Having multiple PCs and need for networks that are simple to install and maintainCommercially: Handhelds and other mobile devices


Some System requirements come out this year:- Universal framework to access information across a diverse set of devices- Should offer similar protection as in cables. There should not be any compromises on security- It should be simple, small and power efficient for easy mobile usage


The standard requirement must enable the devices to establish ad hoc connections
The standard requirement come out this year :- must enable the devices to establish ad hoc connections.



Works with: Any laptop, handheld PC or PDA with a spare Type II PCMCIA slotOperating Systems: Windows XP, Windows 2000, Windows 98, Windows 95 or Windows CE


Bluetooth components
Bluetooth Components II PCMCIA slot

  • Four major components:

    • Radio Unit (radio transceiver)

    • Baseband Unit (flash memory & CPU)

    • Software Stack (driver software)

    • Application Software (user interface)


Bluetooth radio
Bluetooth Radio II PCMCIA slot

  • Radio transceiver supports spectrum spreading and operates at a

  • frequency between 2.402 GHz - 2.480 GHz ISM band.

  • Spectrum spreading is accomplished by frequency hopping in 79

  • hops displaced by 1MHz. (maximum of 1600 hops/sec.)

  • Each device can optionally vary its transmitted antenna power


Bluetooth baseband
Bluetooth Baseband II PCMCIA slot

  • Better term: “Link Controller Unit”

  • Actual hardware unit which enables the physical link between devices

  • Implementsbaseband protocols and Link Manager (LM) routines.

    • link connection and power control

    • asynchronous and synchronous links

    • handles packets, paging and inquiry

    • applies a time-division duplex scheme (alternate transmit and

    • receive)


Connection establishment
Connection Establishment II PCMCIA slot

  • All devices are in Standby Mode by default, unconnected and

  • periodically scan for messages.

  • 2 types of scans:

    • Page Scan - device is listening for Data Access Code (DAC)

      • used for set up connection

    • Inquiry Scan - device is listening for Inquiry Access Code (IAC)

      • used to discover which units are in range


Bluetooth network topology
Bluetooth Network Topology II PCMCIA slot

  • capable of point to point & point to multi-point connections

  • Piconet:

    • a master device

    • one to seven active slave units

    • a piconet channel

  • Scatternet:

    • a group of piconets, up to maximum of ten

    • a way of connecting a device to multiple masters

    • Full-duplex rate of more than 6Mb/s.


Link and packet types
Link and Packet Types II PCMCIA slot

  • 2 types of physical links

    • Synchronous Connection-Oriented (SCO)

      • voice and data transmission, a point to point connection between a master and a specific slave

    • Asynchronous Connection-Less (ACL)

      • data transmission only, a point to multi-point connection between a master and all the active slaves


Bluetooth capacities
Bluetooth Capacities II PCMCIA slot

  • Bluetooth can support:

    • one asynchronous data channel

      • asymmetric link of 723.2 kb/s in either direction while permitting 57.6 kb/s in the return direction

      • symmetric link of 433.9 kb/s

    • up to three simultaneous synchronous voice channels

      • each supports 64 kb/s in each direction

    • one channel which simultaneously supports asynchronous data and synchronous voice


Connection modes
Connection Modes II PCMCIA slot

  • 4 Connection Modes

    • Active Mode:device is actively participating in a channel. It’s

    • assigned an Active Member Address (AM_ADDR)

    • Hold Mode: maintains AM_ADDR. Supports synchronous but not

    • asynchronous packets

    • Sniff Mode: maintains AM_ADDR. Supports both synchronous and

    • asynchronous packets

    • Park Mode: no activity within a channel but remains synchronized to

    • a channel


Security features
Security Features II PCMCIA slot

  • specification includes security features at the link level.

  • supports authentication (unidirectional or mutual) and encryption.

  • devices transmit on the heavily used, unlicensed 2.45 GHz radio band ( the same used by microwaves.)

  • to keep transmission from breaking up, frequency hopping is employed.


Security features cont d
Security Features cont’d II PCMCIA slot

  • Each Bluetooth device has a unique address

  • Associating the ID with a person facilitates tracking

    • i.e. individuals can be traced and their activities easily logged.

  • For Bluetooth devices to communicate, an initialization process uses a PIN.

  • While some devices allow users to punch in an ID number, the PIN can also be stored in the non-volatile memory of the device


Security modes
Security Modes II PCMCIA slot

  • Bluetooth security is divided into three modes:

    • Security Mode 1: non-secure

    • Security Mode 2: service level enforced security

    • Security Mode 3: link level enforced security


Security architecture
Security Architecture II PCMCIA slot


Security implementation within the architecture

Two possible security modes for devices II PCMCIA slot:

Trusted Device

Such a device would have access to all services for which the trust relationship has been set.

Untrusted Device

Such a device would have restricted access to services.

Three levels of security for services:

Authorisation Required

access granted to trusted devices

Authentication Required

the remote device must be authenticated

Encryption Required

The link must be changed to encrypted mode, before access to the service is possible

Security Implementation within the Architecture


Potential weaknesses
Potential Weaknesses II PCMCIA slot

  • PIN code problems

  • Spoofing due to non-secret link key

  • Spoofing Bluetooth device addresses


Limited transport in 2.4 GHz band. Mbps for BlueTooth. Need higher rate for Local Area Networks. (sending graphics to be printed)

mutual perturbation (cross-talk) of corresponding office equipment within a same building

frequency hopping provides some level of security, confidentiality may be compromised via currently available decoder technology.

Bluetooth is WPAN (Wireless Personal Area Network) not LAN replacement. low cost, low profile, low power wireless link for convenience

BT not designed for large file nor fast transfer; for mobility and convenience

wireless devices always have security issues, but BT’s range is 10 meters need to be within this range to pick up transmission

Drawbacks Benefits


Higher frequency 60GHz: a. free world wide b. less cross talk thus more confidentiality of transmitted information c. larger bandwidth than 2.4 GHz

60 GHz - Not Cost Effective (potentially higher cost of necessary adapters. Power drain and may be larger in size. BlueTooth designed to circumvent these issues. Cheap, low power, and convenient.

Drawbacks Benefits


Compatibility of bluetooth upgrade to bt
Compatibility of BlueTooth b. less cross talk thus more confidentiality of transmitted information c. larger bandwidth than 2.4 GHz : Upgrade to BT

  • PC's quite easy. Bluetooth PCMCIA cards, USB connectors etc. are developed at this stage, thus only a matter of installing the device, and loading up some bluetooth software

  • Upgrade PDA’s with BlueTooth add-on chips or buy PDA’s with chip already in place

  • current Mobile Phones may not be upgraded , due to their cheap cost and relativity limited complexity, and lack an interface for any kind of bluetooth device (such as a USB port). Although Ericsson will be offering a bluetooth chip add-on.


Future is it already here bluetooth vs airport 802 11

1MB/sec, 10 meters, 7 active devices b. less cross talk thus more confidentiality of transmitted information c. larger bandwidth than 2.4 GHz

can be used wherever you are – home, office or on the move. (PDA, mobile phone)

Cheap; various applications to drive the price down (electronics, telecoms, automotive and computing)

BT future revision may be as a high speed network solution

10 MB/sec, 50 meters, 10 active devices

wireless networking only

pricer

higher speed wireless networking solution

Future :Is it already here? BluetoothvsAirport (802.11)


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