Analgesic Drugs. Department of Pharmacology Zhang Yan-mei. Mechanisms of Pain and Nociception. Nociception is the mechanism whereby noxious peripheral stimuli are transmitted to the central nervous system. Pain is a subjective experience, not always associated with nociception.
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Department of Pharmacology
The descending control system, showing the main sites of action of opioids on pain transmission
Other systemic effects:
(a) physical dependence (somewhat resembling severe influenza, with yawning, pupillary dilatation, fever, sweating, piloerection, nausea, diarrhoea and insomnia), associated with the withdrawal syndrome, lasting for a few days;
(b) psychological dependence, associated with craving, lasting for months or years.