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UNDERSTANDING THE GHOST DANCE:
PRAYER FOR AN NEW WAY
Black Elk (Hehaka Sapa) was a famous Wichasha Wakan (Holy Man) of the Oglala Lakota (Sioux) who participated at the age of twelve in the Battle of Little Big Horn (1876) and was wounded in the Wounded Knee massacre in 1890.
James Mooney’s Account and Photographs
Connecting the Events of 1890 and 1973
Ghost Shirt, National Museum of the American Indian
Chronology of Events before Wounded Knee Massacre
Story of Lost Bird
" I want my people to stay with me here. All the dead men will come to life again. Their spirits will come to their bodies again. We must wait here in the homes of our fathers and be ready to meet them in the bosom of our mother. "
-Wovoka, Paiute Prophet
Sioux Medicine Man who led 1,200 Sioux and Cheyenne warriors against the US 7th Cavalry under George Armstrong Custer at the Battle of the Little Bighorn on June 25th, 1876. Though he did not participate personally in the battle, the chiefs were spurred on by a dream that Sitting Bull had in which a group of American soldiers tumbled into his encampment.
Big Foot as a young man and dead at Wounded Knee
To support herself she toured with Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show
Lost Bird was adopted by Gen. Leonard Colby and his suffragist wife, Clara Bewick Colby. The baby’s original name died at Wounded Knee, along with her chance to grow up in her own culture. She became. literally and figuratively, Zintkala Nuni, the Lost Bird.
Re-interment of Lost Bird’s remains at Pine Ridge Reservation
Ritual: Standardized activities that honor and influence deity.
Belief: Personal cosmology, symbolic behavior, and guiding principles.
Mapuche (Argentina) ritual specialist
Indonesian ritual specialist
Deliberate, conscious, organized efforts by members of a society to create a more satisfying culture.
the blending of indigenous and foreign symbols, rituals, and other traits to form a new system.
Design Elements: Catholic priest, stars and colors from the American flag, the turtle who brought soil for the World’s creation, and birds, messengers to the spirit world.
Ghost Dance Dress, Arapaho peoples, central plains states, about A.D. 1890
People with different mazeways can find it almost impossible to communicate, so violent intercultural conflict is often a feature of revitalization movements and emerging religions.
Larger society’s response:
Charismatic Christianity among the Roma (Romania)
How do they differ from Revitalization Movements?