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TBLT 2, Hawai’i The influence of strategic task based planning on the fluency, accuracy and complexity of speech in two L2s. Siska Van Daele, Alex Housen & Michel Pierrard ACQUILANG ( Centre for Studies on Second Language Learning & Teaching ) BACKGROUND

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TBLT 2, Hawai’i

The influence of strategic task based planning on the fluency, accuracy and complexity of speech in two L2s.

Siska Van Daele, Alex Housen & Michel Pierrard

ACQUILANG

(Centre for Studies on Second Language Learning & Teaching)


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BACKGROUND

  • Exploratory longitudinal study of theComplexity, AccuracyandFluency (CAF)of the L2 speechproduced byDutch-speaking adolescents learning French and English as FLs(and by native speakers of French and English).


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AIMS

  • Describe the development of productive oral proficiency in two L2s in terms of Complexity (C), Accuracy (A) and Fluency(F) and the factors that influence the manifestation of CAF.

  • FormulateconstructdefinitionsandoperationaldefinitionsofComplexity, AccuracyandFluencyas basic dimensions of L2 proficiency.

  • Information processing theoriesand psycholinguistic models of speech production(e.g. Anderson 1993; Bialystok 2001; De Bot 1992; Ellis 1994, 2004; Levelt 1989; 1999; MacLaughlin & Heredia 1996; Robinson 1995, 2003; Skehan 1998).


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C-A-F in L2 is influenced by:

1. Cognitive & Psycholinguistic factors:

  • working memory capacity

  • attention

    2. Psychological factors:

  • Affective factors (eg. attitudes, motivations…)

  • Personality factors (eg. extraversion, degree of foreign language anxiety…)

    3. Contextual factors:

  • amount and type of contact with L2

  • task type and planning conditions


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THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

L2 CONSTRAINTS:

  • limited lexicon

  • limited processing capacity

    PLANNING:

  • types:

    • (strategic) pre-task

      aids F & C

    • within-task aids C & A

  • increases processing capacity

(Levelt, 1989)


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THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

PREVIOUS RESEACH:

  • positive results for fluency & complexity (Crookes, 1989; Foster, 1996;

    Foster & Skehan, 1996; Mehnert, 1998; Ortega, 1999; Skehan & Foster 1997;

    Wendel, 1997 and Yuan & Ellis, 2003).

  • no (Crookes, 1989; Wendel, 1997; Yuan & Ellis, 2003)or mixed results

    (Foster, 1996; Foster & Skehan, 1996; Mehnert, 1998; Ortega, 1999; Skehan &

    Foster1997) for accuracy.

  • DUE TO:

    • unintentional within-task planning(Yuan & Ellis, 2003).

    • length of preparation time (Mehnert, 1998).

    • learner strategies (Ortega, 2005).

    • type of planning(guided/non guided),task(narrative, decision

      making…) (Foster & Skehan, 1996; Skehan & Foster, 1997; Sanguran,

      2005).

    • proficiency level(Kawauchi, 2005, Ortega, 1995, 1999, 2005).

    • language typology


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RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  • DESCRIPTIVE QUESTIONS PLANNING:

  • 1. a. Does unguided strategic pre-task planning have an effect on the fluency, accuracy and complexity of intermediate English-FLlearners?

    b. Does unguided strategic pre-task planning have an effect on the fluency, accuracy and complexity of THE SAME intermediate French-FL learners?

    2. Are the effects of unguided strategic pre-task planning similar or different for both target languages?


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METHODOLOGY

  • PARTICIPANTS:

    • L2 learners:

      • 40 Dutch-speaking adolescent learners (aged 14-16) of EFL and FFL in secondary education in Flanders.

        DESIGN (cross-sectional and cross-linguistic):


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Foreign Language Teaching and Learning in Flanders:

  • L2-French (= other national language):

    • Starts at age 8-9 (Year 3)

    • Taught for 3-5 hrs a week (till Year 12)

    • ± 360 hrs classroom contact at start of study (Year 9)

  • L3-English:

    • Starts at age 12-13 (Year 7)

    • Taught for 2-4 hrs a week (till Year 12)

    • ±180 hrs classroom contact at start of study

  • similar curricula + same (expected) levels of FL-achievement for FFL and EFL (in Years 9-11)


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METHODOLOGY

MATERIALS & DATA:

  • Oral retell-task: 3 versions of a 60-frame wordless picture story: Monsieur O (L. Trondheim): variations on a similar general plot line, same protagonist and contextualization but different secondary characters.


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METHODOLOGY

MATERIALS & DATA:

  • Task conditions:participants told the story with and without pre-task planning time (5. min - 0 min.) and under time pressure (max. 5 min).

  • Oral speech data: recorded and transcribed and analyzed in CHAT-format.

  • Statistical analysis: three-way random effect ANOVA’s.


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METHODOLOGY

  • C-A-F MEASURES

    • COMPLEXITY:

      • Lexical Diversity: Guiraud’s Index (e.g. Vermeer, 2000).

      • Syntactic Complexity: Subclause ratio(Wolfe-Quintero, Inagaki & Kim, 1998).

    • ACCURACY:

      • Lexical Accuracy: lexical errors per clause

      • Grammatical Accuracy: morphological + syntactic errors per clause (Wolfe-Quintero, Inagaki & Kim, 1998).

    • FLUENCY:

      • Speech Rate A & B ((meaningful) syllables per minute) (e.g. Yuan & Ellis, 2003; Ellis & Yuan 2005).


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HYPOTHESES

  • EFL & FFL speech under the +P condition will be characterized byhigher fluency rates>(pre-task) conceptualizationreduces hesitation/pausing behavior.

    2. EFL & FFL speech under the +P condition will be syntactically more complex and lexically more diverse> allocation of attention to message construction in conceptualizer and formulator.

    3. EFL & FFL speech under the +P condition will be grammatically and lexically more accurate > advanced (and intermediate ?) learners can attend to semantic and syntactic encoding AND monitor their output.


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HYPOTHESES

  • EXPLORATORY RESEARCH QUESTION:

  • Are the effects of planning influenced by language typology and is this effect independent of other variables such as proficiency level?


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RESULTS: FLUENCY

Sig. increase in Eng

(F 1,38=6.91, p=0.012)

Near-sig. increase in Fr

(F1,38 =3.57, p=0.067)

Eng > Fr in both conditions &

for both measures

(F 1,115=316.63, p= <0.0001)


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RESULTS: COMPLEXITY

Sig. increase in IG & SCR

in Eng (F1,38=4.77, p=0.035)

Sig. increase in IG & SCR in

Fr (F1,38=4.77, p=0.035)

Eng > Fr in both conditions &

for both measures

(F1,115=316.63, p= <0.0001)


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RESULTS: ACCURACY

Sig. decrease in errors

in Eng (F1,38=8.72, p=0.005)

No sig. change in

Fr (F1,38=0.00, p=0.983)

Eng > Fr in both conditions &

for both measures

(F1,116 =121.27, p=<0.0001)


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SUMMARY & DISCUSSION

Does unguided strategic pre-task planning have an effect on the fluency, accuracy and complexity of intermediate English-FL and the same French-FLlearners?

Are the effects of unguided strategic pre-task planning similar or different for both target languages?


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SUMMARY & DISCUSSION

1. EFL & FFL speech under the +P condition will be characterized byhigher fluency rates>(pre-task) conceptualizationreduces hesitation/pausing behavior.


Summary discussion20 l.jpg
SUMMARY & DISCUSSION

1. EFL & FFL speech under the +P condition will be characterized byhigher fluency rates>(pre-task) conceptualizationreduces hesitation/pausing behavior.


Summary discussion21 l.jpg
SUMMARY & DISCUSSION

2. EFL & FFL speech under the +P condition will be syntactically more complex and lexically more diverse> allocation of attention to message construction in conceptualizer and formulator.


Summary discussion22 l.jpg
SUMMARY & DISCUSSION

2. EFL & FFL speech under the +P condition will be syntactically more complex and lexically more diverse> allocation of attention to message construction in conceptualizer and formulator.


Summary discussion23 l.jpg
SUMMARY & DISCUSSION

3. EFL & FFL speech under the +P condition will be grammatically and lexically more accurate > advanced (and intermediate ?) learners can attend to syntactic and semantic encoding AND monitor their output.


Summary discussion24 l.jpg
SUMMARY & DISCUSSION

3. EFL & FFL speech under the +P condition will be grammatically and lexically more accurate > advanced (and intermediate ?) learners can attend to syntactic and semantic encoding AND monitor their output.


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SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION

Are the effects of planning influenced by language typology and is

this effect independent of other variables such as proficiency level?

  • Unexpected discrepancy in proficiency levels: typology (???)

  • BUT: At higher proficiency levels (EFL): gains in accuracy


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Limitations & implications for further research

  • Measurements of CAF as basic dimensions of L2 proficiency:

  • QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS

  • more and more fine-grained measures (e.g. repair/breakdown F)

  • factor analysis > interplay between dimensions

    (Tavakoli & Skehan, 2005)

  • OTHER METHODS:

  • developmental sequences

    (Bartning & Schlyter, 2004; Pienemann, 2005)

  • qualitative analysis (e.g. pausing behavior, word difficulty)

    (Chambers, 1997)

  • chunks/ formulaic sequences

    (Stengers, 2006)


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Limitations & implications for further research

  • Crosslinguistic analysis (typology):

  • proficiency test / pre-test

  • consider typological differences in phonology / inflectional morph.

  • Effects of strategic planning

  • individual variability:

    • strategies think aloud protocols (Ortega, 1995, 1999)

    • personality/ affective variables

  • length of planning and execution (Mehnert, 1998, Ellis & Yuan, 2003)

  • task type / complexity (Tavakoli & Skehan, 2005;Robinson et al.,1995)

  • type of strategic planning: guided >< non guided(Sanguran, 2005)


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INFORMATION & FEEDBACK

  • [email protected]

  • [email protected]

  • [email protected]


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REFERENCES

  • Bartning I. & Schlyter S. (2004). Itinéraires acquisitionnels et stades de développement en françaisL2. Journal of French Language Studies14, 281-299.

  • Chambers, F. (1997). What do we mean by oral fluency? System 25, 535-544.

  • Crookes, G. (1989). Planning and interlanguage variation. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 11, 367-383.

  • Ellis, R. & Yuan, F. (2005). The effects of careful within-task planning. In R. Ellis (Ed), Planning and Task Performance in a Second Language, (pp. 37-76). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

  • Foster, P. (1996). Doing the task better: How planning time influences students’ performance. In J.Willis & D. Willis (Eds.), Challenge and Change in Language Teaching. London: Heineman.

  • Foster, P. & Skehan, P. (1996). The influence of planning and focus of planning on task-based learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 18(3), 299-324.

  • Kawauchi, C. (2005). The effects of strategic planning. In R. Ellis (Ed), Planning and TaskPerformance in a Second Language, (pp. 37-76). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

  • Levelt, W.J.M. (1989). Speaking: From Intention to Articulation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

  • Mehnert, U. (1998). Length of Planning Time and L2 Performance. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 20, 109-122.

  • Ortega, L. (1995). The effects of planning in L2 Spanish narratives. Research Note 15. Honolulu: University of Hawaii, Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center.

  • Ortega, L. (1999). Planning and focus on form in L2 oral performance. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 21, 109-148.

  • Ortega, L. (2005). Learner-driven attention to form during pre-task planning. In R. Ellis (Ed),Planning and Task Performance in a Second Language, (pp. 37-76). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.


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REFERENCES

  • Pienemann, M. (2005). An introduction to Processability Theory. In M. Pienemann (Ed.), Cross-Linguistic Aspects of Processability Theory, (pp. 1–60). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

  • Sanguran, J. (2005). The effects of focussing on meaning and form in strategic planning. In R.Ellis (Ed.), Planning and Task Performance in a Second Language, (pp.111–141). Amsterdam:John Benjamins.

  • Skehan, P. & Foster, P. (1997). Task type and task processing conditions as influences on foreign language performance. Language Teaching Research1, 185-211.

  • Stenger, H., Housen, A., Boers, F. & Eyckmans, J. (forthcoming). The effectiveness of a phrase-learning approach on fluency, complexity and accuracy in and beyond the EFL classroom.

  • Robinson, P., Ting, S. & Unwin, J. (1996). Investigating second language task complexity. RELC Journal26, 62-79.

  • Tavakoli, P., & Skehan, P. (2005). Strategic planning, task structure, and performance testing. In R. Ellis (Ed.), Planning and task performance in a second language, (pp. 239-273). Philadelphia:John Benjamins.

  • Trondheim, L. (2002). Monsieur O. Paris: Delcourt.

  • Vermeer, A. (2000). Coming to grips with lexical richness in spontaneous speech data. Language Testing 17 (1), 65-83.

  • Wendel, J. (1997). Planning and second language narrative production. Unpublished PhD thesis. Temple University, Japan.

  • Wolfe-Quintero, K., Inagaki, S. & Hae-Young, K. (1998). Second Language Development in Writing: Measuresof Fluency, Accuracy and Complexity. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

  • Yuan, F. & Ellis, R. (2003). The effects of pre-task planning and on-line planning on fluency, complexity and accuracy in L2 oral production. Applied Linguistics 24, 1-27.


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