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The Effects of Theme Associated Asynchronous Music and Familiar Asynchronous Music on Motor Performance

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The Effects of Theme Associated Asynchronous Music and Familiar Asynchronous Music on Motor Performance. Megan Crawford, Kara Buckner, Mike Porter, and Amanda Lindsey Culver-Stockton College. Asynchronous Music - coexistent background music.

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The Effects of Theme Associated Asynchronous Music and Familiar Asynchronous Music on Motor Performance

Megan Crawford, Kara Buckner, Mike Porter, and Amanda Lindsey

Culver-Stockton College

definitions
Asynchronous Music - coexistent background music.

Theme Associated Music - music associated with a previous experience that produces an image in the mind, from memory.

Definitions
hypothesis
Hypothesis

Participants will ride the stationary exercise bike a greater distance in a given time period when they are presented with theme associated asynchronous music compared to familiar, upbeat, asynchronous music.

literature review
Literature Review
  • Support our hypothesis
    • Copeland & Franks (1991)
    • Boutcher& Trenske (1990)
    • Uppal & Datta (1990)
    • Gfeller (1988)
    • Lucaccini & Kreit (1972)
  • Contradict our hypothesis
    • Patton (1991)
    • Schwartz, Fernhall & Plowman (1990)
    • Lee ((1989)
participants
Participants
  • 38 Culver-Stockton College students
    • 19 Athletes; 19 Non-athletes
  • Given extra credit in Psychology courses
  • Tested individually
music choice
Familiar Upbeat Asynchronous Music

Christina Aguilera - “Dirty”

50 Cent - “In ‘da Club”

Taken from the Top 25 Billboard Chart

Familiar Theme Asynchronous Music

Survivor - “Eye of the Tiger”

Rocky III

Kenny Loggins - “Danger Zone”

Top Gun

Music Choice
procedure
Procedure
  • Informed consent
  • Begin riding bike
    • default settings
  • Checked Stats every 4 minutes for 16 minutes
    • RPM, distance ridden, and heart rate
  • Debriefing form
results
Results
  • Performed a two-way mixed ANOVA
  • The analysis showed:
  • (1) Main effect of Music, p < .0001
  • (2) Marginal interaction between music type and athlete, p = .142
main effect of music
Main Effect of Music
  • Total mean distance ridden in miles
    • Theme = 2.745 ( SD = .092)
    • Upbeat = 2.595 (SD = . 073
interaction
Interaction
  • Athletes mean distance ridden in miles
    • Theme = 2.735 (SD= .084)
    • Upbeat = 2.568 (SD = .067)
    • Significant difference, t(37) = 7.178; p <.0001
  • Non-Athletes mean distance ridden in miles
    • Theme = 2.737 (SD = .101)
    • Upbeat = 2.621 (SD = .071)
    • Significant difference, t(18) = 3.074; p = .007
implications for future studies
Implications for Future Studies
  • Control group with no asynchronous music
  • Survey of preferred type of music before experiment
  • Use upbeat familiar music and sedative slow music
  • Vary levels of volume for music
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