Sections Week 3. COGN 21: Storyboard Exercise COGN 22: Editing on iMovie with raw footage. Reading. Electronic Reserves Material Heterogeneity of Recorded Sound, ALTMAN Film Art know the ideas behind the examples, not necessarily the examples themselves
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COGN 21: Storyboard Exercise
COGN 22: Editing on iMovie with raw footage
Pre - Production - planning / development / preparation, actor casting and rehearsals
Production - shoot, and record sound and picture
Post Production - editing and distribution
The continuity style is characterized by the experience of a smoothly flowing, "seamless" narrative--one that is \'visibly continuous\' and where we tend not to notice the gaps and breaks of scene changes, editing, and subtitles. Continuity editing is a system or grammar for organizing shots with the goal of maintaining the viewer\'s spatial orientation and temporal orientation.
Great Train Robbery, Edwin Porter, 1903
D. W. Griffith refined much of what has become continuity style in his biograph shorts and later epics such as Birth of a Nation (1915). Crosscutting, rhythmic editing, varied angles and framing, close ups and full shots.
Types of shots filmed (determined by editing style):
Match on Action - no time passes, continuous movement between one shot and the next
Elliptical Editing - suggesting time has passed. Use of the dissolve or wipe, show character leaving frame and cut to a shot before character has reentered frame.
Overlapping Editing - action occurs again and again
(Battleship Potempkin, Eisenstein)
Flashback - intercut action from previous scene or scene assumed to have occurred already
180 Degree Rule:
The Maltese Falcon, (1941) John
Classical Hollywood Style of Editing
Both space and time are constructed in cinema. In the classical Hollywood style space and time are unified, continuous and linear. They appear as a unified whole to match our perception of time and space in reality. This is for example achieved by the 180º rule or by the relative lack of jump cuts (cuts that leave out a time period of a continuous action.
All of the above results in what Bordwell has called "an excessively obvious cinema,” in that it follows a set of norms, paradigms, and standards that match and gratify viewers expectations. The end of a classical Hollywood film answers for all questions have been provided and one doesn’t leave the cinema perplexed. From an ideological perspective, these practices discourage viewers critical inquiry of any particular film as well as the underlying practices of mainstream cinema in general.
Many modern (post-1960) and most recent independent films are less straightforward. There may well be unresolved issues and unanswered questions, as well as highly ambiguous motivations. Starting in the 1960s, many filmmakers, often for political reasons, rejected the well-made linear narrative and added ambiguity to their narrative tools.