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Hardware - 1: Components of a Computer. Objectives. The objectives of this session (t hree lectures) are to: define the nature of data and information describe how computers represent data define the principal physical components of a computer system.

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Hardware - 1: Components of a Computer

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Hardware - 1:Components of a Computer


Objectives

The objectives of this session (three lectures) are to:

  • define the nature of data and information

  • describe how computers represent data

  • define the principal physical components of a computer system.

  • describe in broad terms how each component works.

  • describe the operating/performance characteristics of each component.

  • show how these components inter-relate.

  • look at trends in current technology

  • give you a sufficient understanding of the technology to underpin your understanding of Information Systems


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What is Data?

  • Definitions:

    • A series of non-random symbols, number, values or words.

    • A series of facts obtained by observation or research

    • A collection of non-random facts

    • The record of an event or fact

  • Examples:

    • today’s date;

    • measurements taken on a production line;

    • records of business transactions.


What is Information?

  • Definitions:

    • Data that has been processed so that they are meaningful.

    • Data that has been processed for a purpose.

    • Data that has been interpreted and understood by the recipient.

  • Examples:

    • A bank statement;

    • A sales forecast;

    • A telephone directory.

  • Information Warfare


Components of a PC Hardware System

The computer

does something to it

Input

Processing

Output

You get

something out

You put

something in

Storage

DATA

INFORMATION

The computer may

store it for a while


Word Count on a Word Document

The computer

does something to it

Word

Document +

Program

Instructions

Counting

Number

of

Words

Pop-up window

with

Word Count

DATA

INFORMATION

Store

Document

Running Total

Program Instructions

The computer may

store it for a while


Components of a PC Hardware System

Central

Processing

Unit (CPU)

  • Output Devices

  • Printers

  • Video display

  • Input Devices

  • Keyboard

  • Mouse

Buses

  • Secondary Storage

  • Magnetic disk

  • Optical disk

Communication

Devices

Primary

Storage


How Computers Represent Data

  • Bit

  • Byte

  • Size is normally expressed in Bytes

  • Standard measures are:

    • 1,024 bytes = 1 kilobyte (KB) (1,024 = 2 x2 x 2 x2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x2 x 2 x2)

    • 1,024 KB = 1 Megabyte (MB)

    • 1,024 MB = 1 Gigabyte (GB)

    • 1,024 GB = 1 Terabyte (TB)

    • 1,024 TB = 1 Petabyte (PB)

    • 1,024 PB = 1 Exabyte (EB)

    • 1 EB is approximately 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 bytes.

  • Today PC memory is measured in Megabytes, PC disk in Gigabytes and mainframe disks in Terabytes.


Some Sizes


However...

  • When talking of:

    • Processors (CPU) and

    • Communications

      use bit.

  • A 56.8 Kbps modem means 56,800 bits per second

    = KB

  • Processors are often described as 8, 16, 32 or 64 bit.


The Central Processing Unit (CPU)

The CPU

Control

Unit

ALU

Input

Devices

Output

Devices

Registers

Instruction Set

Primary

Storage

Secondary

Storage


The Central Processing Unit (CPU)

  • Core components

    • Control Unit

    • Arithmetic-Logic Unit

    • Registers

    • Instruction Set

    • Clock

    • Primary Storage

  • Optional

    • Cache


The CPU (continued)

  • Control Unit

    • Access program instructions

    • Decode (interpret) instructions

    • Control flow of data throughout system

    • Data flows through paths called buses

  • Arithmetic-Logic Unit

    • Perform computations on data

    • Perform comparisons on data

  • Registers

    • High speed storage areas

    • Hold data and instructions


The CPU (continued)

  • Instruction Set

    • Pre-programmed functions

  • Clock

    • Sequences events

  • Primary Storage (Main Memory)

    • Stores instructions from programs

    • Stores data to be processed

  • Cache Memory (optional)

  • Overheats – Heat sync

    • Iitac


Speed of a Chip

  • Cycle Speed

    • Clock speed – beat frequency of the clock (in MHz) determines how many times per second the processor performs operations.

    • Intel® Core™ 2 Duo E4400 Processor (2.0GHz,800MHz,2MB cache) – 2 billion cycles per second

  • Word Length

    • No. of bits that can be processed at any one time.

    • Pentium D processes 64 bits of data in one machine cycle.


Speed of a Chip

  • Data Bus Width

    • The physical paths down which the data and instructions travel.

    • The wider the bus the more data can be moved – faster!

    • Bus bandwidth: The product of the width of its bus (in bits) times the frequency at which the bus transfers data (MHz).

  • Line width

    • Distance between transistors (the smaller this is the more transistors can fit on the chip)


The Microprocessor

The Intel Pentium D is one example

It is the latest generation

of a series that started

with 8086 c. 1978.

Silicon on a ceramic

base

Approximately

100 pins to link

to remainder of

computer

Contains the

basic processing

functions

Uses 64 bit

registers

Intel Compatibles

Advanced Micro Devices (AMD)

Cyrix Corporation


Examples of Microprocessors


Getting More Performance

  • Instruction sets

    • Complex Instruction Set Computer or CISC.

      • Intel x86, Pentium

    • Reduced Instruction Set Computers(RISC)

      • Power PC

    • Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW)

      • Intel Itanium

    • Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing

      • Intel Pentium 4


Multiple Processor Machines

Program

Program

TASK 1

RESULT

CPU

CPU

CPU

CPU

TASK 1

TASK 2

TASK 3

RESULT

Program

TASK 2

RESULT

CPU

SEQUENTIAL PARALLEL

MASSIVE PARALLEL COMPUTERS CAN HAVE THOUSANDS OF CPUs TO ATTACK LARGE COMPUTING PROBLEMS


Other Chips

Specialised chips

are often on

daughterboards

CPUs alone do not

run a working

computer

  • Specialised

  • chips include:

  • Video memory

  • Graphics processing

  • Encryption

  • Language compilers

  • Floating point

  • arithmetic

Other chips are

needed. Some

contain startup

information,

instructions

Standard chips

are found on

the motherboard


PC 1991


PC 2007


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  • 19” Flat Panel Monitor (19.0” v.i.s)

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  • 16x DVD/ +/- RW Combo Drive

  • SoundBlaster Compatible On-Board Sound

  • Dell Stereo Speakers

  • 1GB USB Memory Key

  • Microsoft Windows XP Professional SP2

  • Microsoft Works 7.0


Primary Storage

  • Stores data and program statements for the CPU

    • Data that have been input before being transferred to the ALU.

    • Data and results during intermediate stages of processing.

    • Data after processing until being transferred to an output device.

    • Program statements/instructions received from input devices and secondary storage.


RAM (random access memory)

  • Where the CPU stores the instructions and data it is processing.

    • Size (1.0GB for multimedia)

    • Speed

    • Address

    • Memory is an array of silicon based binary switches

    • Volatile

    • Virtual memory


Cache Memory

  • Temporary storage for frequently used blocks of programmes.

    • High speed.

    • Primary (Level 1 cache) – located in the processor.

    • Secondary (Level 2 cache) – located on the motherboard.


ROM (read only memory)

  • Portion of Primary Storage that cannot be changed or erased.

    • Nonvolatile

    • Booting up

      • BIOS

      • POST


Storage Speeds

Level 1 Cache

Level 2 Cache

Cheap

Expensive

Large Amount

Small Amount


PC Advertisement

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  • Intel® Core™ 2 Duo E4400 Processor (2.0GHz,800MHz,2MB cache)

  • 1.0 GB 533Mhz RAM (2x512)

  • 250GB Serial ATA Hard Drive

  • 19” Flat Panel Monitor (19.0” v.i.s)

  • 256MB nVidia™ GeForce 8600GT graphics card

  • 16x DVD/ +/- RW Combo Drive

  • SoundBlaster Compatible On-Board Sound

  • Dell Stereo Speakers

  • 1GB USB Memory Key

  • Microsoft Windows XP Professional SP2

  • Microsoft Works 7.0


TO DO!!

What is Grid Computing, how does it work, where is it used?


Summary of Key Points

  • Computers comprise input, output, storage and processing devices.

  • Computers are made up of many components of which the most important is the Central Processing Unit.

  • Processor performance depends on:

    • Register size;

    • Clock speed;

    • Bus size;

    • Line width.

  • Currently processors are mostly 64 bit.

  • There is a steady trend toward multiprocessing machines.


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