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GV551-week 18. Peacekeeping operations Definitions Types Record of UN peacekeeping operations. Haiti (1994). First time that SC declared a coup against a democratically elected government threat to peace-right to intervene First intervention after Somalia (Somalian effect)

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gv551 week 18

GV551-week 18

Peacekeeping operations



Record of UN peacekeeping operations

haiti 1994
Haiti (1994)
  • First time that SC declared a coup against a democratically elected government threat to peace-right to intervene
  • First intervention after Somalia (Somalian effect)
  • Multiple failed mediations by foreign ministers, OAS envoys (ch. 15), UN envoy, and presidential envoys
  • Difficulty to combine diplomacy and force (humanitarian goals not national interest) although necessary
  • Unique model of mediation before the intervention: a former President, a Senator, and G. Powell (threat of enforcement)
lessons to be learned from haiti 1994
Lessons to be learned from Haiti (1994)
  • Addressing images of the enemy
  • Good mediators are able to listen and empathize with both sides
  • Autonomy and strength of mediators: positive or negative?
  • Deadlines dangerous but necessary
  • Once the major point has been reached then relax allowing for the other side to save face
  • Symbolic concessions to seal the agreement
  • Having an exit strategy
  • Critical distinction between use of force and threat of force
definitions of peacekeeping
Definitions of peacekeeping
  • Peacekeeping: observe a truce/cease-fire/keep parties apart
    • Method to manage conflict (first attempts under the League of Nations)
    • Often as a term is used to encompass military action against an aggressor: e.g. Korean war and first Gulf war
    • Peacekeeping combines elements of collective security and observation
  • Characteristics of peacekeeping:
    • Nonenforcement—noncoercive
    • Occupation but as an interposition between fighting parties
    • Limited military capability (light armaments—partly due to necessity)---strictly self-defence and deterrentthreat in case of demilitarisation and patrolling
    • Neutrality
      • Nonaligned states (e.f. Sweden, Pakistan, India, Fiji)
      • Issue of major powers (Cold War)
    • Permission of Host Countries
    • Ad hoc organizations under the UN auspices and certified by UN Security Council
peace making and peacebuilding
Peace making and peacebuilding
  • Peace making: bringing hostile parties to an agreement through peaceful means: mediation, adjudication
  • Peace enforcement: authorized act with or without the consent of the involved parties, mandated, and authorized by the Security Council—heavily armed and under the UN secretary-general (e.g. East Slavonia 1996, Sierra Leone 2000 (UK), Liberia (US))
  • Peacebuilding (Haiti, East Timor, Sierra Leone, Kosovo…): developing social, economic, and political structure and institutions to avoid conflict in the future
types of peacekeeping operations pkos
Types of peacekeeping operations (PKOs)
  • 6 types depending on degree of involvement and the freedom to use force
  • From conflict management to conflict resolution
    • Types 1 & 2: traditional peacekeeping (neutrality et al: Cyprus, Kashmir 1948, Golan Heights)
    • Types 3 & 5: incorporate elements of peacebuilding, such as decommissioning (Guatemala, Sierra Leone, Kosovo), training of police forces, monitoring and organization of elections (Cambodia, East Timor/OSCE in Eurasia)
      • Type 5: enforcement issues
    • Preventive development of UN troops (FYMacedonia) (Article 1)
    • Type 6; full fledged peacebuilding (Haiti)
  • Problems of preventive UN operations
    • Developing countries’ fears of intrusion and loss of sovereignty
    • Selectivity of missions
    • Loss of funds from other projects
    • Issue of timing: when is prevention appropriate?
differences between peacekeeping and peacebuilding
Differences between peacekeeping and peacebuilding
  • Peacekeeping is operational, technical and focuses on quick results; peacebuilding is based on long-term planning and strategic management, and seeks sustainable outcomes.
  • Peacekeeping requires direct and outside intervention; peacebuilding develops local capacity.
  • Peacekeeping is guided by impartiality and equidistance from contending parties; peacebuilding requires an in-depth understanding of the socio-political situation, is participatory and actively engages local stakeholders.
  • Example Haiti:
origin of pkos
Origin of PKOs
  • Boxer wars in China (1900)
  • The creation of the League of Nations
    • Concept of collective security
      • No direct reference to peacekeeping but authorization to League of Nations to take action to safeguard peace
    • Problems:
      • The role of great powers
      • Lack of enforcement
        • Japanese attack against China (1931)—fact finding mission
        • Abyssinian crisis (1935)
      • Lack of interest in remote conflicts (the case of Czechoslovakia (1938))
      • What is an aggressor?
the united nations
The United Nations
  • Purpose: provide and international structure through which states can settle conflicts with the least possible use of force
  • Chapters 6 & 7
  • Korean war and the movement of non-aligned countries
  • Resolution 998 and Suez Canal Crisis (1956): beginnings of PKOs
  • 1960-1964: Congp (ONUC)
    • To ensure the withdrawal of Belgian forces from the Republic of the Congo
    • to assist the Government in maintaining law and order
    • to provide technical assistance
    • UNUC was authorized to use force
    • By resolution 169 (1961) of 24 November 1961, the Council authorized the Secretary-General "to take vigorous action, including the use of the requisite measure of force, if necessary, for the immediate apprehension, detention pending legal action and/or deportation of all foreign military and paramilitary personnel and political advisers not under United Nations Command, and mercenaries", as laid down in Council’s resolution 161 (1961).
  • Early 1990s: An Agenda for Peace (Boutros Boutros-Ghali): more ambitious role of the UN
    • Second and third generation PKOs