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Collaboration and Group Work. Jeannie Yuhaniak Dental Informatics University of Pittsburgh. Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Outline. Introduction / Background Mandviwall & Olfman Paper Sociological Aspects of Groups Collaborations and Dentistry Barriers to Collaboration

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Collaboration and Group Work

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Collaboration and group work l.jpg

Collaboration and Group Work

Jeannie Yuhaniak

Dental Informatics

University of Pittsburgh

Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming


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Outline

  • Introduction / Background

  • Mandviwall & Olfman Paper

  • Sociological Aspects of Groups

  • Collaborations and Dentistry

  • Barriers to Collaboration

  • Future Research

  • In-class Assignment


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What is Collaboration?

  • Communication, knowledge-sharing, and knowledge dissemination

  • Face-to-face interactions, group meetings, individual action, and hands-on experimentation

Kouzes, R., Myers, J., Wulf, W. Collaboratories: Doing Science on the Internet. Computer. 29:40-46. 1996


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What is a Collaboratory?

“…center(s) without walls, in which the nation’s researchers can perform their research without regard to geographical location – interacting with colleagues, accessing instrumentation, sharing data and computational resource, and accessing information in digital libraries”

  • William Wulf, 1989

Kouzes, R., Myers, J., Wulf, W. Collaboratories: Doing Science on the Internet. Computer. 29:40-46. 1996


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Figure from Mandviwalla, M., Olfman, L. What Do Groups Need? A Proposed Set of Generic Groupware Requirements. ACM Transactions on Computer Human Interaction: 1(3):245-268. 1994.


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Timeline of Clinical Collaboration

Collaboratory for Microscopic Digital Anatomy - scientist sharing computer-controlled electron microscope

William Wulf coined the phrase "collaboratory,"

1989

NYU Oral Cancer RAAHP

Center Project Started

1998

2001

1996

2000

National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research recognized that the dental and craniofacial research community must increase its capability for collaborative research

1967

The very first telemedicine system was implemented by a radiologist

1991

National Collaboratory Program was legislated to build infrastructure supporting scientific research

Intermed Collaboratory established as partnership among several leading medical informatics laboratories

Rinde E, Balteskard L. Is there a future for telemedicine? Lancet;359(9322):1957.2002

Schleyer, T. Collaboratories: Leveraging Information Technology for Cooperative Research. J Dent Res 80(6)1508-15012. 2001


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Types of Collaboratories

  • Web-based (workspaces, conferencing)

  • Internet discussion lists

  • Email

  • Chat

  • Phone

  • Video conferencing

  • Screen Sharing Applications


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Must Support:

Knowledge management

Knowledge creation

Knowledge sharing

Must Consider:

Autonomy

Trust

Sense of place

Attention to ritual

Collaboratory Software Groupware

Kouzes, R., Myers, J., Wulf, W. Collaboratories: Doing Science on the Internet. Computer. 29:40-46. 1996


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What do Groups Need?Mandviwall & Olfman Paper

  • Multidisciplinary literature analysis was conducted to identify important work group characteristics

  • Article proposes a set of generic groupware design requirements based on this analysis

Mandviwalla, M., Olfman, L. What Do Groups Need? A Proposed Set of Generic Groupware Requirements. ACM Transactions on Computer Human Interaction: 1(3):245-268. 1994.


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Why Discuss This Study?Mandviwall & Olfman Paper

Overall analysis of the sociological/psychological aspects of groups

paired with their

technological

significance

Bighorn Sheep, Yellowstone National Park0


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MethodsMandviwall & Olfman Paper

1. Comprehensive Literature review of common problems of Groupware

2. Review of literature to increase understanding of work groups

Old Faithful, Yellowstone National Park


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Results of Work Group Literature ReviewMandviwall & Olfman Paper

As Groups perform their tasks they are delineated by context, time, behavioral characteristics, use of interaction methods, and work habits. Since groups vary across so many factors their specific needs are unpredictable.

Mandviwalla, M., Olfman, L. What Do Groups Need? A Proposed Set of Generic Groupware Requirements. ACM Transactions on Computer Human Interaction: 1(3):245-268. 1994.


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Resulting Design Suggestions

Mandviwall & Olfman Paper

Mandviwalla, M., Olfman, L. What Do Groups Need? A Proposed Set of Generic Groupware Requirements. ACM Transactions on Computer Human Interaction: 1(3):245-268. 1994.


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Mandviwalla, M., Olfman, L. What Do Groups Need? A Proposed Set of Generic Groupware Requirements. ACM Transactions on Computer Human Interaction: 1(3):245-268. 1994.


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Other Sociological Findings

  • It is not worth participating unless a sizeable group are already participating (Metcalfe's law)

  • People will stop using a system if participation falls below a certain level (party example)

  • Just knowing others are doing work has dramatic affect

    Activity indicators

Ackerman, M., Starr, B. Social Activity Indicators for Groupware. Computer. 29: 37-42. 1996


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Other Sociological Findings

  • Finding and vilifying external enemies

  • Religious admiration (Tolkein example)

    Find Commonalities

    Have Policies

Shirky, C. A Group is its own worst enemy. Speech at ETech. April 2003


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Collaboratories in DentistryPreliminary Data * : Chairside computer use among general dentists

  • 45% Dentists practice alone

  • 92% Have internet access in their offices

  • 42% Use email for clinical purposes

  • 84% Think it would be useful to have a National Health Information Infrastructure to exchange patient information

* N = 102


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Preliminary Data: Chairside computer use among general dentists

  • Share information with Hygienist, Assistant, Front Desk & Patients

  • Share information with other colleagues dental suppliers, laboratories, & insurance companies


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Why we need Collaborations in Dentistry

  • Research

  • Single practices communicating with each other

  • Education

  • National Databases (Patient Data)


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Collaborations in Dentistry ADA’s Perspective

ADA, Future of Dentistry—Today’s Vision: Tomorrow’s Reality. http://www.ada.org/prof/resources/topics/futuredent/future_preface.pdf

“Dental schools should explore regionalization in dental education in which dental schools collaborate to reduce costs and enhance quality in dental education.”


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Dental Technologies

  • Teledentistry for clinical consultations

  • Videoconferencing for education & professional collaboration

  • Web for information dissemination to patients & remote clinicians

  • Digital Image Databases

  • Patient Information Databases for research


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Barriers to Collaboration

  • Convincing people to use it

  • Finding the right tools – groupware

  • “Creating a system that fully satisfies each requirement is not practical” - Mandviwalla, M., Olfman, L

  • Supporting the

  • development of the

  • group


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Future ResearchDental Collaboratories

  • Studies of Dental Collaborations

  • Studies of Groupware used in Dentistry

  • RAAHP Study


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In-Class Assignment

Assessing Your Collaboration:

A Self Evaluation Tool.

  • Center for Biomedical Informatics

  • ADA

  • RAAHP

  • University of Pittsburgh

Aruba

Borden, L., Perkins, D. Assessing Your Collaboration: A Self Evaluation Tool. Journal of Extension. 37(2). 1999.


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Thank You

Questions or Comments?

Jeannie Yuhaniak

Collaboratory Manager

Center for Dental Informatics

University of Pittsburgh

412.383.9081

jeannie@dental.pitt.edu


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