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Nation and Memory in Eastern Europe (19 th and 20 th century) Christoph Mick. Lecture 7 Imperial Culture and National Culture Week 9. Outline E mpires in Central and Eastern Europe 2 . Poles and Ruthenians (Ukrainians) in the Austrian Empire

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Nation and memory in eastern europe 19 th and 20 th century christoph mick l.jpg

Nation and Memory in Eastern Europe (19th and 20th century)Christoph Mick

Lecture 7

Imperial Culture and National Culture

Week 9


Slide2 l.jpg

  • Outline

  • Empires in Central and Eastern Europe

  • 2. Poles and Ruthenians (Ukrainians) in the Austrian Empire

  • 3. Key problems of the Russian Empire in 1900

  • 4. Russian Nationalism, Russification and Imperial Patriotism

  • 5. Conclusion


Slide3 l.jpg

  • Outline

  • Empires in Central and Eastern Europe

  • 2. Poles and Ruthenians (Ukrainians) in the Austrian Empire

  • 3. Key problems of the Russian Empire in 1900

  • 4. Russian Nationalism, Russification and Imperial Patriotism

  • 5. Conclusion



Ruthenians rusyny l.jpg
Ruthenians (Rusyny)

  • Territory: East Galicia (Eastern part of crownland Galicia and Lodomeria), Northern Bukowina, Carpathian mountains (all part of the Austrian Empire)

  • Religion: Greek-Catholic (Uniate)

  • Vernacular: Ruthenian (west Ukrainian dialect)

  • Social structure: overwhelming majority are peasants

  • Elite: Greek-Catholic priests and a small stratum of secular intelligentsia


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Options

  • Polish option – “gente ruthenus, natione polonus”

  • Ruthenian option – “Rusyny”

  • Russian option – Russophiles

  • Ukrainian option – Ukrainophiles

  • (Panruthenian option) – including Belarussians

John-Paul Himka, ‘The Construction of Nationality in Galician Rus’: Icarian Flights in Almost All Directions’, in Ronald Grigor Suny and Michael D. Kennedy (eds.), Intellectuals and the Articulation of the Nation (Ann Arbor, 1999), pp. 109-64.


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  • Outline

  • Empires in Central and Eastern Europe

  • 2. Poles and Ruthenians (Ukrainians) in the Austrian Empire

  • 3. Key problems of the Russian Empire in 1900

  • 4. Russian Nationalism, Russification and Imperial Patriotism

  • 5. Conclusion


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  • Backwardness

  • Backward agriculture and danger of famines

  • Agrarian overpopulation and land hunger

  • Low level of industrialisation

  • Industrialisation and infrastructural projects financed by the state or by foreign capital

  • High percentage of non-literates

  • Weak middle class

  • Ineffective and corrupt bureaucracy (poorly administrated, lack of administrators)

  • Imperial overstretching

  • High level of violence – anti-Semitism and pogroms


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  • Division of society

  • Estrangement of educated society and autocracy

  • Not very numerous but concentrated, and revolutionary-minded working class

  • Crisis of autocracy and land-owning nobility

  • Russian nationalism and national movements in the periphery of the Empire


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  • Outline

  • Empires in Central and Eastern Europe

  • 2. Poles and Ruthenians (Ukrainians) in the Austrian Empire

  • 3. Key problems of the Russian Empire in 1900

  • 4. Russian Nationalism, Russification and Imperial Patriotism

  • 5. Conclusion


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Autocracy, Orthodoxy, and Nationality/National Character

Sergey S. Uvarov, Minister for Education 1832


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Slavophiles

Westernizers

Panslavic Movement

Russian Nationalism

Imperial Patriotism


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Panslavic Movement in the second half of the 19th c.

Theory and movement which promoted

unification of all Slavic nations

Russia’s mission – to liberate and unify the Slavs from Austrian and Ottoman domination

Formation of a Russian-dominated Slavic federation

Pan-Slavism was never adopted as official Russian policy, but was supported by many officials and used in propaganda


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Russian Nationalism

Imperial Patriotism


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Major Ethnic Groups in the Russian Empire 1897 (125,640,000)

Russians 44.31%

Ukrainians 17.81%

Belorussians 4.68%

Poles 6.31%

Jews 4.03%

Other ethnic groups in the West 4.47%

Ethnic groups in the North 0.42%

Ethnic groups Wolga/Ural 5.85%

Ethnic groups in Siberia 0.99%

Ethnic groups in the Steppe 1.99%

Ethnic groups in the Transcaucasus 3.53%

Ethnic groups in the Caucasus 1.05%

Ethnic groups in Central Asia 5.69%

Diaspora groups (1.43% Germans) 1.91%


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Assimilation

“Little Russians”

Orthodox faith

Attraction of Russian culture

Upward mobility - chances

Ukrainian nationalism

Ethnicity and historical traditions

Small group of pro-Ukrainian noblemen

Ukrainian language and literature

Partial coincidence of social and ethnic boundaries

Ukrainians in the Russian Empire


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What is Russification?

Three varieties (Thaden)

Unplanned: certain individuals take on Russian culture and language, takes several generations

Administrative: demand by the Russian government that Russian must be used in administration everywhere in the empire

Cultural: active policy that aims to replace a population’s native culture with Russian

Edward C. Thaden et al., Russification in the Baltic Provinces and Finland, 1855-1914 (Princeton, 1981), pp. 7-8

Theodore R. Weeks, ‘Russification: Word and Practice 1863-1914’, in Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society Vol 148, No. 4, December 2004, pp. 473-474


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  • Outline

  • Empires in Central and Eastern Europe

  • 2. Poles and Ruthenians (Ukrainians) in the Austrian Empire

  • 3. Key problems of the Russian Empire in 1900

  • 4. Russian Nationalism, Russification and Imperial Patriotism

  • 5. Conclusion


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The Making of the Russian Nation

  • Pro

  • Russian language and tradition of literate culture

  • Living in the Russian empire where members of own ethnic group are the elite

  • Common present

  • Orthodox faith

  • Common history

  • Cultural bonds: similar traditions, costumes, songs and so on

  • Contra

  • Gap between culture of educated elite and peasant population

  • Late abolition of serfdom (1861)

  • Low level of political participation (autocracy)

  • Social conflict between land-owning nobility and peasantry

  • small middle class

  • Imperial tradition


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The Making of the Ukrainian Nation

  • CONTRA

  • Ukrainian language not yet a fully developed “high language”, Russian/Polish available as alternative languages for higher education

  • Since 1667/1772 Eastern part has common history with Russia, Western part with Poland/Austria

  • traditional elites have become Russians or Poles

  • no uncontested Ukrainian state in history

  • Potential members of the nation live in different empires as non-dominant ethnic groups

  • Opportunities for educated Ukrainians in Russian Empire

  • almost no middle class

  • Different denominations

  • Politics of Russification/Polonization

  • PRO

  • Ukrainian language and literature in the vernacular since 1798

  • Greek-Catholic faith in Galicia a barrier to assimilation by the Polish nation

  • Common history until the 17th c.

  • Social antagonism to Polish or Russian/Russified overlords

  • Cossack autonomy in early modern Europe and short period of independence

  • Cultural bonds: similar traditions, costumes, songs and so on


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The Making of the Polish Nation

  • PRO

  • Polish language and long tradition of literate culture

  • Influence in Galicia - here dominant-ethnic group since 1867, socially dominant in parts of Russian, German, and Austrian territories (landowners)

  • Roman-Catholic faith

  • Common history of most of the territory until the end of the 18th c.

  • Existence of a numerous, genuinely Polish elite – the nobility

  • Cultural bonds: similar traditions, costumes, songs and so on

  • CONTRA

  • Partitions of Poland

  • Living in the Russian Empire, Prussia/German Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

  • No common present

  • Opportunities for educated Poles in the service of the Empires

  • small middle class

  • Policy of Russification and Germanization


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