Wildlife management chapter 3 some successes
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Wildlife Management Chapter 3 Some Successes. 3 men instrumental in early successes. Theodore Roosevelt Aldo Leopold Gifford Pinchot. Gifford Pinchot. 1865-1946 Professional forester Educated, science based forest management Director of Forestry (USDA) Governor of PA

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Wildlife ManagementChapter 3 Some Successes

  • 3 men instrumental in early successes

  • Theodore Roosevelt Aldo Leopold Gifford Pinchot


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Gifford Pinchot

  • 1865-1946

  • Professional forester

  • Educated, science based forest management

  • Director of Forestry (USDA)

  • Governor of PA

  • Breaking New Ground

  • The Fight for Conservation

  • State forest named after him


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Pinchot quotes

  • “The vast possibilities of our great future will become realities only if we make ourselves responsible for that future.”

  • “Unless we practice conservation, those who come after us will have to pay the price of misery, degradation, and failure for the progress and prosperity of our day.”


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Successes in Wildlife Management - Bison

  • Bison bison

  • 1905 few hundred left in zoos

  • Refuges established

    • Montana (Yellowstone)

    • Oklahoma (Wichita)

    • South Dakota

  • Concurrent programs

    • Canada (B.b. athabascae)

      • Wood buffalo

    • Europe (B. bonasus)


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Concerns with Bison Restoration

  • Competition w/ cattle

  • Disease

  • Hunting

  • Competing uses for national wildlife refuges

    • Snowmobiles

    • Skiers

    • Photographers

    • Hunters

    • Food/ out populate refuge


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Lead shot

Fishing wts (sinkers)

Bioaccumulation

Remains in sediment bottom of lakes, rivers

Non target species

Insect food base poisoned

Swans, turtles, fish

Replace w/ steel shot

More expensive

Less accurate

Lead Poisoning


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Return of Wood Ducks

  • Migratory Bird Act of 1918

  • Hunting

  • Lack of nest sites limited recovery

  • 1940’s nest box program

  • 1940’s hunting established again

Aix sponsa


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Wild Turkey Re-establishment

  • 1930 - Mostly gone

  • Trapped wild stock, bred in captivity, then released

  • 1970 -Hunting again

  • 1970 – 71 birds shot

  • 2001 – 31,993 shot

  • Similar results in Illinois

    • Est. 135,000 turkeys


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Restoring Mammals - Deer

  • Gone from Illinois 1920’s

  • Restocked from kentucky

  • The rest is history

  • Managed kills – census data

  • Some state no limits – south

    • Climate & crops year round

    • Major deer populations

  • Illinois Trophy bucks

  • 500,000 left 100 years ago

  • Almost 20 million now


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Restoring Mammals - Beaver

  • Drastically lower numbers

    • Trapped

    • Fashion – hats, trim

    • Practical - coats

  • Now few trappers

  • Nuisance


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Restocked in several states, Illinois, PA, NY, Missouri

NY hunted in some parts of state but $$$ spent buying from Louisiana to restock other parts of NY

Missouri most succesful

Restoring Mammals – River Otter


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Restoring Mammals - Elk

  • 40,000 in Yellowstone

  • Protected winter habitat, controlled hunting, improved range conditions

  • 10 western states,

  • Michigan, VA &PA have herds,

  • Escapees in ILL from game farms

  • 1 million now


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Species:

Sea Otters

Seals

Whales

Walrus

US only –

eventually internation marine protection

Needed due to:

Hunting –all marine mammals

Native american rights

Oil spills (Exxon Valdez)

Overfishing – (seal food)

El nino (loss of squid –seals)

Marine Mammal Protection Act - 1972


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Gray Whale Case

  • 10,000 – 12,000 miles migration

  • Major league exploitation by many countries

  • Harvest banned in 1946 by International Whaling commission

  • 1st protected area in Mexico 1971

  • Reached 26,000 individuals 1999

  • Now may be starving due to loss of food in the Bering Sea (& Chukchi Sea – Russia)

    • Global climate change altering nutrient base

    • Whales washing up dead showing signs of starving


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Viscaino Biosphere Reserve

  • 1988 salt pumping station in this Mexican bay proposed

  • Primary calving ground

  • Gave up because risk to whales too great

  • Link

  • http://www.acsonline.org/factpack/graywhl.htm


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Bird success -Song birds

  • DDT

  • Rachel Carson

  • Silent Spring

  • Housecats

  • Disease -feeders


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Bird success – hawks & eagles

  • DDT

  • Rachel Carson

  • Breeding programs

    • California Condor

    • Bald Eagle


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Small mammal successes

  • Trapping declining

  • Habitat restoration

  • Grain farms

  • Fewer predators


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Dealing with Reality

  • 400 million ducks in US in 1800’s

  • About 40 million in 1950’s

  • Current targets aim at 40 million

    • Less habitat

    • Less food, cover

    • Pollution

    • people

Impossible to imagine restoring waterfowl to 1800 & earlier levels

True for most species


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